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country to country. sampling of developing countries Insurance Assume insurance is cost prohibitive in most countries and hence theft/damage costs are incurred during the 5 year TCO. Input from emerging market technology and education experts Amortization Costs are included when incurred and are not amortized over several years. Currency All prices are in US$. IT Technician Daily Rates Assume a daily rate for IT technicians of US$64 ($8 per hour) for Microsoft-trained IT professionals and an 8.5% higher rate, US$69.44 (US$8.68 per hour) for Linux-trained IT professionals. Assume that the daily rate for rural areas is 10% higher. Data on the costs of hiring Linux- and Microsoft-trained professionals indicate that in both developed country and developing-country contexts, Linux-trained professionals command higher salaries and are thus more expensive to retain. Salary surveys conducted in the U.S., Britain, and Australia by payscale.com consistently show that Linux-certified professionals earn 10-20% more than their Microsoft counterparts. The Red Hat India website claims that Red Hat- certified professionals earn up to 30% more than Microsoft-certified professionals (RHCE: What does it mean? on Red Hat website, http://www.redhat.in/training/rhce_meaning.php). Although evidence is more anecdotal, the salary gap in countries such as China, India, Pakistan and South Africa appears to be similar, if not higher, that that in developed countries. According to a headhunter at a leading Chinese recruitment firm, a senior developer at a major foreign software firm, and the head of a medium-sized Chinese software firm (approximately 50 staff), salaries for Linux IT professionals are from 30% (systems administrators) to 43% (software developers) higher than salaries for Microsoft IT professionals in the same categories. Linux-experts in South Africa estimate that the differential between Linux and Microsoft IT professionals is closer to 10-20%, with Linux professionals earning the premium salaries. A global staffing firm and a high-tech company with affiliates in India as well as a local IT services firm estimate that Linux IT professionals in India earn up to double their Microsoft Certified Engineer peers. A major staffing firm in Pakistan provided survey data that found that Linux IT professionals with three years of experience earn 12.5% more than Microsoft professionals with the same number of years experience. IT technician salaries were calculated based on an analysis of salary surveys (IT salary benchmarks from 2006 in Asia, http://www.zdnetasia.com/techjobs/salary- benchmarks/), IT technician jobs posted on career websites in Latin America and data from IT experts in China, India, Pakistan and South Africa. Cost Categories Initial costs: out-of-pocket costs for initial acquisition of the solution, Recurrent costs: ongoing costs incurred during the lifetime of the equipment, Hidden Costs: Often unanticipated or under-estimated post-purchase, one-time charges Computer life-cycles Assume that both the mainstream and the low-cost computers have a 5 year lifecycle and hence no repurchase during the five-year TCO. Assume that ultra-low cost laptops and secondhand computers have 3 year lifecycles and require one repurchase during the five- year TCO period. Computer lifecycles are based on assumptions laid out by GeSCI, the global e-schools and communities initiative, an NGO supported by Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, and Canada. Available from: http://www.gesci.org/files/GeSCI%20TCO%2 0Tool.xls Vital Wave Consulting, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary. Do not copy or send to third-parties in whole or in part. Affordable Computing for Schools in Developing Countries Page 19 of 34 Copyright 2008 8/15/2008 Rural area Population under 5,000 and infrastructure poor (i.e., lack of broadband Internet, unstable electricity) Urban Area Population greater than 5,000 with adequate infrastructure (i.e, broadband Internet, stable electricity) Primary School Grades one through five or the first five years of formal education. This definition is consistent with the one used by the United Nations Millennium Development Project. UN Millennium Project, \u201cBackground Paper of the Task Force on Education and Gender Equality\u201d http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documen ts/tf03edapr18.pdf Secondary School Grades nine through 12. Many countries, as well as UNESCO, separate secondary school into segments such as lower secondary or upper secondary school (\u201cmiddle\u201d or \u201cjunior high school\u201d, and \u201chigh school\u201d in the U.S.). UNESCO TCO Philosophy: Reasonable costs TCO assumes reasonable costs or sufficient enough investment in order to ensure the operation and use of the computer equipment during the five-year TCO period. Under this philosophy, items such as corruption, mismanagement and illegally acquired software are excluded from the TCO. Cost-specific Assumptions Cost Item Assumptions and Calculations Source(s) Initial Costs Total Retrofitting, Wiring and Infrastructure Costs Total Retrofitting, Wiring and Infrastructure Costs For the computer lab environment, assume a school will use an existing room to house the computer lab and will conduct two or three of the following activities prior to installing the computers: installing and purchasing an air conditioning unit capable of cooling a 300 square foot classroom, light construction (including flooring, adding security features such as bars on windows or extra locks), furniture (i.e., computer tables, locked cabinets and chairs) and electrical wiring and/or electrical infrastructure upgrades. The total assumed cost for these facility and technology infrastructure improvements is US$3,497, the estimated cost of two or three of these enhancements is $2,100. Actual costs will greatly depend upon local conditions. Assume any price differentials for rural areas will not impact overall costs. For the classroom environment, assume a school will only need to conduct only one or two of these upgrades, for a total investment of US$1,398. Third party studies - developing countries** and Input from emerging market technology and education experts* Total Hardware Costs Computer Hardware: Student computer, Mainstream Computer: Assume a price of US$750 for the mainstream computer, which is a desktop computer with a monitor, keyboard and mouse. Assume that the computer lab is equipped with 16 The price was calculated based on the creation of a typical Vital Wave Consulting, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary. Do not copy or send to third-parties in whole or in part. Affordable Computing for Schools in Developing Countries Page 20 of 34 Copyright 2008 8/15/2008 PC and Laptop Servers, and control software mainstream computers, one of which is a "PC Server" and functions as the server as well as a student or teacher-used computer. Assume a one-year, comprehensive, on-site warranty for each computer. configuration derived from a scan of recent government tenders found on dgMarket and government procurement websites for computers for primary and secondary schools from developing countries in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Latin America. Computer Hardware: Student computer, PC and Laptop Servers, and control software Low-cost Computer: Assume a price of US$500 for the low-cost computer, which is a desktop computer with a monitor, keyboard and mouse. Assume that the computer lab is equipped with 16 low-cost computers, one of which is a "PC Server" and functions as the server as well as a student or teacher-used computer.