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TURBINAS A GÁS
Prof. Paulo Cesar C. Pinheiro
Dept. Engenharia Mecânica da UFMG
Abril 2012
Introdução
The combustion (gas) turbines being installed in many of today's natural-gas-
fueled power plants are complex machines, but they basically involve three
main sections:
 * The compressor, which draws air into the engine, pressurizes it, and feeds
it to the combustion chamber at speeds of hundreds of miles per hour.
 * The combustion system, typically made up of a ring of fuel injectors that
inject a steady stream of fuel into combustion chambers where it mixes with the
air. The mixture is burned at temperatures of more than 2000 degrees F. The
combustion produces a high temperature, high pressure gas stream that enters
and expands through the turbine section.
 * The turbine is an intricate array of alternate stationary and rotating aerofoil-
section blades. As hot combustion gas expands through the turbine, it spins the
rotating blades. The rotating blades perform a dual function: they drive the
compressor to draw more pressurized air into the combustion section, and they
spin a generator to produce electricity.
Introdução
Land based gas turbines are of two types:
(1) heavy frame engines
(2) aeroderivative engines.
Heavy frame engines are characterized by lower pressure ratios (typically
below 20) and tend to be physically large. Pressure ratio is the ratio of the
compressor discharge pressure and the inlet air pressure.
Aeroderivative engines are derived from jet engines, as the name implies,
and operate at very high compression ratios (typically in excess of 30).
Aeroderivative engines tend to be very compact and are useful where
smaller power outputs are needed.
As large frame turbines have higher power outputs, they can produce larger
amounts of emissions, and must be designed to achieve low emissions of
pollutants, such as NOx.
Introdução
One key to a turbine's fuel-to-power efficiency is the temperature at which it
operates. Higher temperatures generally mean higher efficiencies, which in
turn, can lead to more economical operation. Gas flowing through a typical
power plant turbine can be as hot as 2300 degrees F, but some of the
critical metals in the turbine can withstand temperatures only as hot as
1500 to 1700 degrees F. Therefore, air from the compressor might be used
for cooling key turbine components, reducing ultimate thermal efficiency.
Another way to boost efficiency is to install a recuperator or heat recovery
steam generator (HRSG) to recover energy from the turbine's exhaust. A
recuperator captures waste heat in the turbine exhaust system to preheat
the compressor discharge air before it enters the combustion chamber. A
HRSG generates steam by capturing heat from the turbine exhaust. These
boilers are also known as heat recovery steam generators. High-pressure
steam from these boilers can be used to generate additional electric power
with steam turbines, a configuration called a combined cycle.
Turbina LM500
Turbina LM5000 General Motors
Comprimento 6,2m
Peso: 12,5 t
Potência: 55,2 MW (injeção de vapor)
Combustíveis Líquidos e Gasosos
3.5
10 20 40 50 60 7030
Medium Calorific Value (MCV) High Calorific Value(HCV)‘’Normal’’
SIT Ltd.
Definition
Low Calorific
Value (LCV)
Pipeline
Quality NG
Wellhead / Associated Gases
37 49 6515
60 % - 25 %
Inerts (CO2,
N2)
90%-60 %
Inerts
(CO2, N2)
Very low
inerts, high
hydrocarbons
(CnHn+2 etc)
LNG High Inert
Wobbe Index (WI) is the main indicator of interchangeability of fuel gases.
WI = Higher heating value/(square root of gas specific value)
Wellhead gas and associated gases cover Wobbe Index from HCV to LCV with
increasing contents of inert gases (“rare gases”)
WI-range of standard pipeline quality gas from 37 to 49MJ/Nm3
Conjunto das Turbinas a Gás
Compressor Train Turbines / Drives Industrial Power
Plants
Combined
Cycle Power
Plants
Gas Turbine
Steam
Turbine
Electric
Drive
Turbinas a Gás Siemens
340
279
266
198
188
163
121
68
45
29
25
17
13
8
7
5
SGT5-8000H
SGT5-4000F
SGT6-6000G
SGT6-5000F
SGT5-3000E
SGT5-2000E
SGT6-3000E
SGT-1000F
SGT-800
SGT-700
SGT-600
SGT-500
SGT-400
SGT-300
SGT-200
SGT-100 >3,900 gas turbines sold to date
Dry Low Emission Combustion System
SGT-300
SGT-200
SGT-400
SGT-100
SGT-100 to SGT-400 Common Design
• First DLE unit introduced 1995
• 335 DLE units now in service
• 7,315,000 DLE running hours to date
Double Skin
Impingement
Cooled
Combustor
Main Burner
Pilot
Burner
Igniter
Turbina Rolls Royce Trend 60
58 MW, Rendimento 42%
FIM