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Cap5_COASTAL PROCESSES_ DEAN_e_Dalrymple

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6.6.1 VIDEO METHODS FOR SANDBARS
	6.6.2 SEDIMENTATION
	6.6.2.1 Areas of Expected High Siltation
	6.6.2.2 Longshore Sediment Transport
	6.6.2.3 Evaluation of Anticipated Sedimentation in a Deep Navigational Channel
	REFERENCES
	EXERCISES
	CHAPTER SEVEN Equilibrium Beach Profiles
	7.1 INTRODUCTION
	7.2 METHODS OF DERIVING EQUILIBRIUM BEACH PROFILES
	7.3 CONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FORCES ACTING ON BEACH PROFILES
	7.3.1 DESTRUCTIVE FORCES
	7.3.2 CONSTRUCTIVE FORCES
	7.4 DEVELOPMENT OF EQUILIBRIUM BEACH PROFILE THEORIES
	7.4.1 UNIFORM WAVE ENERGY DISSIPATION PER UNIT VOLUME
	7.4.2 UNIFORM WAVE ENERGY DISSIPATION PER UNIT AREA
	7.4.3 UNIFORM BOTTOM SHEAR STRESS
	7.4.4 A SEDIMENTTRANSPORT ARGUMENT
	7.4.5 VERIFICATION OF THE Ay PROFILE
	7.4.6 INDEPENDENT FIELD EVALUATION OF EQUILIBRIUM BEACH PROFILES
	7.4.7 A REEXAMINATION OF THE DESTRUCTIVE FORCES
	7.4.8 LARSON’S MODEL
	7.4.8.1 Other Profile Shapes
	7.4.9 NONUNIFORM SAND SIZES
	7.4.9.1 Comparisons to Field Profiles
	7.4.10 EQUILIBRIUM PROFILE, INCLUDING THE EFFECT OF WAVE SETUP
	7.5 APPLICATIONS OF THE EQUILIBRIUM PROFILE
	7.5.1 SEA LEVEL RISE
	7.5.1.1 The Bruun Rule
	7.5.1.2 Barrier Islands
	7.5.1.3 The Edelman Method
	7.5.2 STORM RESPONSE OF THE EQUILIBRIUM PROFILE
	7.5.3 EQUILIBRIUM PROFILES ON PLANAR BEACHES
	7.5.4 EQUILIBRIUM PROFILES IN FRONT OF VERTICAL BARRIERS
	7.5.5 RECESSION OF A NATURAL PROFILE DUE TO STORM SURGES AND WAVES
	7.5.6 COMPARISON WITH EMPIRICAL ORTHOGONAL FUNCTIONS
	REFERENCES
	EXERCISES
	CHAPTER EIGHT Sediment Transport
	8.1 INTRODUCTION
	8.2 INCIPIENT SAND MOTION AND DEPTH OF CLOSURE
	8.2.1 STEADY FLOW
	8.2.2 UNSTEADY FLOW
	8.2.3 DEPTH OF CLOSURE
	8.3 LONGSHORE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
	8.3.1 ENERGY FLUX MODEL
	8.3.2 ENERGETICS MODEL
	8.3.3 SUSPENDED TRANSPORT MODEL
	8.3.4 LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES OF K
	8.3.5 TRACTION MODELS
	8.3.6 OTHER TRANSPORT RELATIONSHIPS AND COMPARISON WITH FIELD DATA
	8.3.7 DISTRIBUTION OF THE LONGSHORE TRANSPORT ACROSS THE SURF ZONE
	8.4 CROSS-SHORE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
	8.4.1 FALL TIME MODEL
	8.4.2 SIMPLE CROSS-SHORE TRANSPORT MODEL
	8.4.3 A TRACTION MODEL FOR CROSS-SHORE TRANSPORT
	8.4.4 ENERGETICS MODELS
	8.4.5 RIPPLE MODELS
	8.5 LITTORAL DRIFT APPLICATIONS
	8.5.1 LITTORAL DRIFT COMPUTATIONS BASED ON DEEP WATER DATA
	8.5.1.1 Littoral Drift Variability
	8.5.2 LITTORAL DRIFT ROSE
	8.5.2.1 Change in Shoreline Orientation at a Source or Sink
	8.5.2.2 Null Point and Equilibrium Planforms
	8.5.2.3 Stable and Unstable Shorelines
	8.6 OVERWASH AND WASHOVER
	8.7 AEOLIAN SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
	8.7.1 WIND CHARACTERISTICS
	8.7.2 CRITICAL SHEAR VELOCITY,…
	8.7.3 TRANSPORT RELATIONSHIPS
	8.8 ILLUSTRATIONS OF SAND TRANSPORT AND DUNE ACCUMULATION
	8.9 COHESIVE SEDIMENTS
	8.9.1 CRITICAL SHEAR STRESSES
	8.9.1.1 Laboratory Measurements
	8.9.1.2 Field Measurements
	8.9.1.3 Calculation Procedures
	8.9.2 RATE OF EROSION
	REFERENCES
	EXERCISES
	CHAPTER NINE Miscellaneous Coastal Features
	9.1 INTRODUCTION
	9.2 NEARSHORE MORPHOLOGY
	9.3 CRENULATE BAYS
	9.3.1 FORMATION
	9.3.2 DESIGN IN CRENULATE BAYS
	9.4 SAND WAVES
	9.5 MULTIPLE OFFSHORE SANDBARS
	9.5.1 VARIABLE WAVE CLIMATE MODEL
	9.5.2 PARTIAL STANDING WAVE MODEL
	9.5.3 EDGE WAVE MODEL
	9.5.4 MULTIPLE BREAKPOINT MODEL
	9.5.5 OVERTAKE MODEL
	9.6 BEACH CUSPS
	9.6.1 POSSIBLE MECHANISMS
	9.6.1.1 Edge Waves
	9.6.3 SYNCHRONOUS WAVES
	9.6.4 SELF-ORGANIZATION
	9.6.5 SWASH MECHANISM FOR BEACH CUSP INITIATION AND MAINTENANCE
	9.6.5.1 Field Experiments of Longuet-Higgins and Parkin
	9.6.5.2 Field Measurements of Dean and Maurmeyer
	9.6.5.3 Field Measurements of Smith and Bodie
	9.6.5.4 Field Measurements by Holland and Holman
	9.6.5.5 Field Measurements of Takeda and Sunamura
	9.6.5.6 Field Measurements of Masselink and Pattiaratchi
	9.6.5.7 Field Observations by Holland
	9.7 SUMMARY
	REFERENCES
	EXERCISES
	CHAPTER TEN Modeling of Beaches and Shorelines
	10.1 INTRODUCTION
	10.2 PHYSICAL MODELING OF COASTAL PROCESSES
	10.2.1 WAVE BASINS AND WAVE TANKS
	10.2.2 FIXED-BED MODELS
	10.2.3 MOVABLE BED MODELS
	10.2.3.1 Beach Profile Models
	10.2.3.2 Planform Physical Modeling
	10.3 ANALYTICAL MODELING
	10.3.1 AN ANALYTICAL TIME-VARYING PROFILE MODEL
	10.3.2 A ONE-LINE PLANFORM MODEL
	10.3.2.1 Steady Solution
	10.3.2.2 Periodic Beach
	10.3.2.3 Sand Waves
	10.3.2.4 Point Application of Fill
	10.3.2.5 Rectangular Beach Fill
	10.3.2.6 Littoral Barriers
	10.3.2.7 River Deltas
	10.3.3 THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING
	10.4 NUMERICAL MODELING
	10.4.1 PROFILE MODELING
	10.4.2 PLANFORM MODELING
	10.4.2.1 One-Line Model Based on Primitive Equations
	10.4.2.2 N-Line Contour Model
	10.4.2.3 Coastal Models
	REFERENCES
	EXERCISES
	PART FOUR SHORELINE MODIFICATION AND ANALYSIS
	CHAPTER ELEVEN Beach Fill and Soft Engineering Structures
	11.1 INTRODUCTION
	11.2 BEACH NOURISHMENT (BEACH FILL)
	11.2.1 MECHANICS OF BEACH FILL CONSTRUCTION
	11.2.2 PLACEMENT OF THE FILL
	11.2.3 COMPATIBILITY OF THE BORROW MATERIAL
	11.2.3.1 Profile Types
	11.2.4 VOLUME CALCULATIONS
	11.2.4.1 Beach Fill Volume at a Seawalled Beach
	11.2.5 BEACH PLANFORM RESPONSE
	11.2.5.1 Longevity of Beach Fills
	11.2.5.2 The Sea Level Rise Effect on Beach Fills
	11.2.5.3 Effects of Combined Spreading and Background Erosion
	11.2.5.4 Effects of Setting Back the Fill Boundaries
	11.2.5.5 Effects of Tapered Ends on Beach Fill
	11.2.5.6 Multiple Nourishments
	11.2.5.7 Migration of Beach Fills
	11.2.5.8 Erosional Hot Spots and Related Phenomena
	11.3 SUBMERGE BERMS
	11.4 BEACH RAINS
	11.4.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
	REFERENCES
	EXERCISES
	CHAPTER TWELVE Hard Engineering Structures
	12.1 INTRODUCTION
	12.2 PERCHED BEACH
	12.3 GROINS
	12.3.1 GROIN PLANFORM
	12.3.2 GROIN TYPES
	12.4 OFFSHORE BREAKWATERS
	12.4.1 SINGLE OFFSHORE BREAKWATER
	12.4.2 MULTIPLE OFFSHORE BREAKWATERS
	12.4.3 SUBMERGED BREAKWATERS
	12.5 ARTIFICIAL HEADLANDS
	12.5.1 EQUILIBRIUM PLANFORM FOR HEADLAND CONTROL
	12.6 REVETMENTS
	12.7 SEAWALLS
	12.7.1 EROSION INDUCED BY SEAWALLS
	12.8 OTHER COASTAL PROTECTION DEVICES
	12.9 JETTIES AN INLETS
	12.10 MONITORING AN MITIGATION FOR ALL COASTAL STRUCTURES
	12.10.1 GENERAL
	12.10.2 MITIGATION
	REFERENCES
	EXERCISES
	CHAPTER THIRTEEN Tidal Inlets
	13.1 INTRODUCTION
	13.2 TI AL HYDRODYNAMICS
	13.2.1 CONSERVATION OF MASS
	13.2.2 DYNAMIC EQUATION
	13.2.3 KEULEGAN METHOD
	13.2.3.1 Bay Tidal Range, Maximum Velocity, and Phase Lag
	13.2.3.2 Other Keulegan Parameters
	13.2.3.3 Examination of Large and Small Bay Asymptotes
	13.2.4 LINEAR METHOD
	13.2.4.1 Comparison of Keulegan and Linear Methods
	13.2.4.2 Effect of Inlet Cross-Section A on Tidal Prism
	13.2.4.3 Effect of Changing Bay Planform Area A on the Tidal Prism
	13.2.4.4 Effect of Changing A on the Maximum Velocity
	13.2.5 MAXIMUM VELOCITIES IN THE INLET
	13.2.6 TIDAL SETUP IN BAYS
	13.2.7 MULTIPLE BAY SYSTEMS
	13.2.8 NONLINEAR TIDAL ANALYSIS
	13.3 INLET STABILITY
	13.4 SEDIMENTARY RELATIONSHIPS AT INLETS
	13.5 SAND BYPASSING AT INLETS
	13.5.1 FIXED SAND TRANSFER SYSTEMS
	13.5.2 WEIR JETTY SYSTEMS
	13.5.3 JET PUMPS
	13.5.4 DREDGING TO MAINTAIN CHANNEL ENTRANCE DEPTHS
	13.6 INLET DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
	13.6.1 INLET STABILITY
	13.6.2 ADJACENT SHORELINE IMPACT
	13.7 AN EXAMPLE
	REFERENCES
	EXERCISES
	CHAPTER FOURTEEN Shoreline Management
	14.1 INTRODUCTION
	14.2 OPTIONS AND FACTORS
	14.2.1 OPTIONS
	14.2.2 FACTORS
	14.2.2.1 Long-Term Shoreline Change Rates
	14.2.2.2 Economic Base
	14.2.2.3 Protection of Historic Structures or Vital Infrastructure
	14.2.2.4 Equity Considerations
	14.3 THE ROLE OF SETBACKS AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS
	14.3.1 CONSTRUCTION SETBACK
	14.3.2 CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS
	14.4 PROTECTIVE VALUE OF A WIDE BEACH
	14.5 SAND RIGHTS
	REFERENCES
	Author Index
	Subject Index