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Problem 10.1. Let be the event that a 0 is transmitted and let be the event that a 
0 is received. Define H
0H 0R
1 and R1, similarly for a 1. Express the BER in terms of the 
probability of these events when: 
(a) The probability of a 1 error is the same as the probability of a 0 error. 
(b) The probability of a 1 being transmitted is not the same as the probability of a 0 being 
In both cases, the probability of error may be expressed as 
 [ ] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )001110 HHRHHRerror PPPPP += (1) 
(a) The BER is the same as the P[error] and with P(R0|H1) = P(R1/H0) = p then 
 [ ] ( )[ ] pHHperror =+= 01 )( PPP 
since P(H1)+P(H0) = 1. 
(b) With P(H0) \u2260 P(H1), the answer is given by the general result of Eq. (1). 
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