O conceito freudiano de pulsão e algumas de suas implicações epistemológicas
18 pág.

O conceito freudiano de pulsão e algumas de suas implicações epistemológicas


DisciplinaEstágio Supervisionado I13.092 materiais49.545 seguidores
Pré-visualização7 páginas
da\u2009pulsão,\u2009Freud\u2009busca\u2009na\u2009com-
paração\u2009com\u2009o\u2009conceito\u2009fisiológico\u2009de\u2009estímulo\u2009(Reiz)\u2009e\u2009o\u2009esquema\u2009do\u2009arco\u2009reflexo.\u2009
De\u2009acordo\u2009com\u2009esse\u2009esquema,\u2009quando\u2009um\u2009estímulo\u2009proveniente\u2009do\u2009mundo\u2009externo\u2009
alcança\u2009a\u2009substância\u2009nervosa\u2009de\u2009um\u2009organismo,\u2009este\u2009 tende\u2009a\u2009descarregá-lo\u2009para\u2009
fora\u2009por\u2009meio\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009ação\u2009que\u2009o\u2009permita,\u2009p.\u2009ex.,\u2009colocá-lo\u2009longe\u2009do\u2009raio\u2009de\u2009ação\u2009
do\u2009estímulo.\u2009Freud\u2009considera\u2009que\u2009a\u2009pulsão\u2009poderia\u2009ser\u2009subsumida\u2009ao\u2009conceito\u2009de\u2009
estímulo\u2009(Reiz),\u2009de\u2009modo\u2009que\u2009pulsão\u2009poderia\u2009ser\u2009entendida\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009variante\u2009sua,\u2009
uma\u2009espécie\u2009de\u2009estímulo\u2009para\u2009o\u2009psíquico.\u2009Não\u2009devemos,\u2009porém,\u2009entender\u2009estímulo\u2009
para\u2009o\u2009psíquico\u2009como\u2009equivalente\u2009da\u2009pulsão\u2009(GARCIA-ROZA,\u20092004).\u2009
De\u2009fato,\u2009além\u2009dos\u2009estímulos\u2009realmente\u2009pulsionais,\u2009há\u2009estímulos\u2009que\u2009podem\u2009
atuar\u2009 sobre\u2009o\u2009psíquico,\u2009mas\u2009que\u2009não\u2009devem\u2009ser\u2009chamados\u2009pulsionais,\u2009pois\u2009 são\u2009
mais\u2009parecidos\u2009com\u2009os\u2009estímulos\u2009fisiológicos.\u2009Freud\u2009dá\u2009o\u2009exemplo\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009luz\u2009
forte\u2009atuando\u2009sobre\u2009o\u2009olho.\u2009Um\u2009estímulo\u2009pulsional\u2009corresponderia,\u2009p.\u2009ex.,\u2009com\u2009
a\u2009sede\u2009\u2013\u2009percepção\u2009da\u2009secura\u2009da\u2009mucosa\u2009da\u2009faringe\u2009\u2013\u2009ou\u2009a\u2009fome\u2009\u2013\u2009irritação\u2009da\u2009
membrana\u2009mucosa\u2009do\u2009estômago.\u2009Logo,\u2009uma\u2009diferença\u2009básica\u2009entre\u2009um\u2009estímulo\u2009
pulsional\u2009 (Triebreiz)\u2009 e\u2009outros\u2009estímulos\u2009 (fisiológicos)\u2009 ((physiologischem) Reiz)\u2009
que\u2009atuam\u2009sobre\u2009o\u2009psíquico\u2009está\u2009no\u2009fato\u2009de\u2009que\u2009um\u2009estímulo\u2009(fisiológico)\u2009provém\u2009
de\u2009fora\u2009e\u2009age\u2009num\u2009único\u2009impacto,\u2009podendo,\u2009por\u2009sua\u2009vez,\u2009ser\u2009neutralizado\u2009por\u2009uma\u2009
única\u2009ação\u2009apropriada,\u2009como\u2009a\u2009fuga\u2009diante\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009fonte\u2009de\u2009estímulos\u2009(BIRMAN,\u2009
2009).\u2009Já\u2009o\u2009estímulo\u2009pulsional\u2009não\u2009provém\u2009do\u2009exterior,\u2009mas\u2009do\u2009interior\u2009do\u2009organis-
O\u2009conceito\u2009freudiano\u2009de\u2009pulsão\u2009(Trieb)\u2009e\u2009algumas\u2009de\u2009suas\u2009implicações\u2009epistemológicas
Fractal:\u2009Revista\u2009de\u2009Psicologia,\u2009v.\u200923\u2009\u2013\u2009n.\u20092,\u2009p.\u2009405-422,\u2009Maio/Ago.\u20092011\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 413
mo,\u2009razão\u2009pela\u2009qual\u2009\u201cnunca\u2009age\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009força de impacto momentânea [mo-
mentane Stosskraft],\u2009mas\u2009sempre\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009força constante [konstante Kraft]\u201d\u2009
(FREUD,\u20091967b,\u2009p.\u2009212,\u2009grifo\u2009do\u2009autor,\u2009 tradução\u2009nossa).\u2009Pela\u2009mesma\u2009razão,\u2009a\u2009
fuga\u2009não\u2009é\u2009de\u2009serventia\u2009diante\u2009de\u2009um\u2009estímulo\u2009pulsional,\u2009fazendo-se\u2009necessárias\u2009
ações\u2009específicas\u2009para\u2009 sua\u2009eliminação,\u2009ações\u2009coordenadas\u2009que\u2009promovam\u2009uma\u2009
alteração\u2009adequada\u2009na\u2009fonte\u2009interna\u2009de\u2009estímulos.\u2009Freud\u2009denomina\u2009\u201csatisfação\u201d 
(Befriedigung) a\u2009suspensão\u2009do\u2009estado\u2009de\u2009carência\u2009(Bedurfnis)\u2009imposto\u2009pelo\u2009estí-
mulo\u2009pulsional.\u2009É\u2009a\u2009partir\u2009dessas\u2009características\u2009específicas\u2009do\u2009estímulo\u2009pulsional\u2009
que\u2009Freud\u2009apresenta\u2009uma\u2009descrição\u2009inicial\u2009da\u2009essência\u2009da\u2009pulsão:\u2009a)\u2009provém\u2009de\u2009
fontes\u2009de\u2009estímulo\u2009localizadas\u2009no\u2009interior\u2009do\u2009organismo;\u2009e\u2009b)\u2009manifesta-se\u2009como\u2009
força\u2009constante.\u2009Destas,\u2009deduz\u2009mais\u2009uma\u2009entre\u2009outras\u2009de\u2009suas\u2009características:\u2009c)\u2009a\u2009
fuga\u2009é\u2009incapaz\u2009de\u2009eliminá-la,\u2009ela\u2009é\u2009irremovível.\u2009Vemos,\u2009assim,\u2009que\u2009uma\u2009primeira\u2009
caracterização\u2009da\u2009pulsão\u2009é\u2009feita\u2009a\u2009partir\u2009do\u2009recurso\u2009ao\u2009conceito\u2009fisiológico\u2009de\u2009es-
tímulo\u2009e\u2009o\u2009modelo\u2009biológico\u2009do\u2009arco\u2009reflexo.
3.3. pressupOstOs para a cOnstruçãO dO cOnceitO de pulsãO ii:
a tendência biOlógica dO sistema nervOsO
Outro\u2009elo\u2009importante\u2009para\u2009compreendermos\u2009o\u2009modo\u2009como\u2009Freud\u2009constrói\u2009
o\u2009conceito\u2009de\u2009pulsão\u2009encontra-se\u2009na\u2009passagem\u2009do\u2009texto\u2009em\u2009que\u2009admite\u2009explicita-
mente\u2009ter\u2009aplicado\u2009sobre\u2009os\u2009dados\u2009empíricos\u2009observados\u2009na\u2009clínica,\u2009além\u2009de\u2009cer-
tas\u2009idéias\u2009iniciais,\u2009também\u2009certos\u2009pressupostos\u2009ou\u2009premissas.\u2009Escreve\u2009ele:\u2009\u201cNós\u2009
aplicamos\u2009 ao\u2009nosso\u2009material\u2009 experiencial\u2009 não\u2009 apenas\u2009 certas\u2009 convenções\u2009 como\u2009
conceitos\u2009fundamentais,\u2009mas\u2009servimo-nos\u2009também\u2009de\u2009alguns\u2009pressupostos\u2009com-
plicados\u2009[komplizierter Voraussetzungen]\u201d (FREUD,\u20091967b,\u2009p.\u2009213,\u2009grifo\u2009do\u2009au-
tor,\u2009tradução\u2009nossa).\u2009E\u2009a\u2009seguir\u2009enfatiza\u2009a\u2009importância\u2009e\u2009indispensabilidade\u2009desses\u2009
pressupostos\u2009no\u2009processo\u2009de\u2009elaboração\u2009conceitual\u2009dos\u2009fenômenos\u2009psicológicos,\u2009
na\u2009medida\u2009em\u2009que\u2009tais\u2009pressupostos\u2009são\u2009necessários\u2009\u201cpara\u2009guiar-nos\u2009na\u2009elabora-
ção\u2009[Berarbeitung] do\u2009mundo\u2009dos\u2009fenômenos\u2009psicológicos\u201d\u2009(FREUD,\u20091967b,\u2009p.\u2009
213,\u2009tradução\u2009nossa).\u2009Eis,\u2009portanto,\u2009mais\u2009uma\u2009constatação\u2009de\u2009que,\u2009para\u2009Freud,\u2009é\u2009a\u2009
teoria,\u2009entendida\u2009como\u2009o\u2009conjunto\u2009das\u2009intuições\u2009iniciais,\u2009hipóteses\u2009e\u2009pressupostos\u2009
teóricos,\u2009que\u2009condiciona\u2009a\u2009observação,\u2009quer\u2009dizer,\u2009é\u2009a\u2009metapsicologia\u2009que\u2009nos\u2009ser-
ve\u2009de\u2009caminho\u2009ou\u2009método\u2009na\u2009orientação\u2009pelos\u2009processos\u2009psíquicos\u2009inconscientes\u2009
que\u2009supomos\u2009na\u2009base\u2009dos\u2009fenômenos\u2009presentes\u2009na\u2009clínica\u2009ou\u2009na\u2009cultura.\u2009
Um\u2009desses\u2009pressupostos\u2009aos\u2009quais\u2009Freud\u2009se\u2009refere\u2009já\u2009teria\u2009sido\u2009mencionado\u2009
na\u2009discussão\u2009o\u2009conceito\u2009fisiológico\u2009de\u2009estímulo,\u2009embora\u2009não\u2009de\u2009forma\u2009explícita.\u2009
Trata-se\u2009do\u2009pressuposto\u2009biológico\u2009que\u2009tem\u2009a\u2009ver\u2009com\u2009a\u2009tendência\u2009ou\u2009finalidade\u2009
[Zweckmässigkeit],\u2009segundo\u2009a\u2009qual,\u2009\u201co\u2009sistema\u2009nervoso\u2009é\u2009um\u2009aparelho\u2009ao\u2009qual\u2009
foi\u2009conferida\u2009a\u2009função\u2009de\u2009livrar-se\u2009dos\u2009estímulos\u2009que\u2009lhe\u2009chegam,\u2009de\u2009reduzi-los\u2009a\u2009
um\u2009nível\u2009tão\u2009baixo\u2009quanto\u2009possível,\u2009ou,\u2009se\u2009fosse\u2009possível,\u2009de\u2009conservar-se\u2009abso-
lutamente\u2009livre\u2009de\u2009estímulos\u201d\u2009(FREUD,\u20091967b,\u2009p.\u2009213,\u2009tradução\u2009nossa).\u2009Vale\u2009ob-
servar\u2009que\u2009Freud\u2009fazia\u2009uso\u2009desse\u2009pressuposto\u2009biológico\u2009há\u2009mais\u2009de\u2009duas\u2009décadas,\u2009
aparecendo\u2009explicitamente\u2009em\u2009\u201cProjeto\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009Psicologia\u201d,\u2009de\u20091895\u2009(FREUD,\u2009
1987).\u2009Trata-se\u2009do\u2009princípio\u2009de\u2009inércia\u2009e\u2009seu\u2009sucedâneo,\u2009o\u2009princípio\u2009da\u2009constân-
414\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 Fractal:\u2009Revista\u2009de\u2009Psicologia,\u2009v.\u200923\u2009\u2013\u2009n.\u20092, p.\u2009405-422,\u2009Maio/Ago.\u20092011
Helio Honda
cia,\u2009posteriormente,\u2009no\u2009capítulo\u2009VII\u2009de\u2009\u201cA\u2009Interpretação\u2009dos\u2009Sonhos\u201d,\u2009de\u20091900\u2009
(FREUD,\u20091961a),\u2009denominado\u2009princípio\u2009do\u2009desprazer,\u2009para,\u2009finalmente,\u2009a\u2009partir\u2009
do\u2009texto,\u2009\u201cFormulações\u2009sobre\u2009os\u2009dois\u2009princípios\u2009do\u2009funcionamento\u2009psíquico\u201d,\u2009de\u2009
1911\u2009(FREUD,\u20091964b),\u2009receber\u2009o\u2009título\u2009definitivo\u2009de\u2009princípio\u2009do\u2009prazer.\u2009
Assim,\u2009se\u2009a\u2009função\u2009do\u2009sistema\u2009nervoso\u2009é\u2009a\u2009de\u2009lidar\u2009com\u2009os\u2009estímulos,\u2009per-
cebe-se\u2009que\u2009o\u2009conceito\u2009de\u2009pulsão\u2009complica\u2009o\u2009esquema\u2009fisiológico\u2009do\u2009arco\u2009refle-
xo,\u2009pois,\u2009os\u2009estímulos\u2009pulsionais,\u2009por\u2009serem\u2009de\u2009origem\u2009interna,\u2009não\u2009podem\u2009ser\u2009
eliminados\u2009por\u2009este\u2009mecanismo\u2009reflexo,\u2009exigindo\u2009do\u2009sistema\u2009ações\u2009muito\u2009mais\u2009
complexas\u2009e\u2009numerosas.\u2009\u201cElas\u2009apresentam\u2009assim\u2009exigências\u2009mais\u2009altas\u2009ao\u2009sistema\u2009
nervoso,\u2009 levando-o\u2009a\u2009desenvolver\u2009atividades\u2009complicadas,\u2009encadeadas\u2009entre\u2009si,\u2009
que\u2009modificam\u2009de\u2009tal\u2009modo\u2009o\u2009mundo\u2009externo,\u2009que\u2009ele\u2009serve\u2009à\u2009satisfação\u2009das\u2009fontes\u2009
internas\u2009de\u2009estímulos\u201d\u2009(FREUD,\u20091967b,\u2009p.\u2009213,\u2009tradução\u2009nossa).\u2009Mas,\u2009sobretudo,\u2009
continua\u2009Freud,\u2009os\u2009estímulos\u2009pulsionais\u2009obrigam\u2009o\u2009sistema\u2009nervoso\u2009a\u2009renunciar\u2009
ao\u2009propósito\u2009ideal\u2009[ideale Absicht],\u2009mencionado\u2009antes,\u2009de\u2009manter\u2009afastados\u2009os\u2009es-
tímulos,\u2009porque,\u2009como\u2009sabemos\u2009(GARCIA-ROZA,\u20092004;\u2009BIRMAN,\u20092009),\u2009esse\u2009
tipo\u2009de\u2009estímulo\u2009atua\u2009como\u2009uma\u2009força\u2009constante,\u2009afluindo\u2009de\u2009modo\u2009contínuo\u2009e\u2009
inevitável.\u2009Por\u2009isso,\u2009conclui\u2009Freud\u2009(1967b,\u2009p.\u2009213-214,\u2009tradução\u2009nossa),\u2009\u201cas\u2009pul-
sões,\u2009e\u2009não\u2009os\u2009estímulos\u2009externos,\u2009são\u2009os\u2009verdadeiros\u2009motores\u2009do\u2009progresso,\u2009que\u2009
levaram\u2009o\u2009sistema\u2009nervoso,\u2009de\u2009infinita\u2009capacidade\u2009de\u2009rendimento,\u2009ao\u2009seu\u2009nível\u2009de\u2009
desenvolvimento\u2009atual\u201d.\u2009
3.4. funçãO epistemOlógica dO cOnceitO de pulsãO na 
metapsicOlOgia: a natureza erógena da realidade psíquica
O\u2009primeiro\u2009significado\u2009do\u2009conceito\u2009de\u2009pulsão,\u2009compreendido\u2009como\u2009concei-
to-limite,\u2009parece\u2009representar\u2009uma\u2009estratégia\u2009heurística\u2009introduzida\u2009por\u2009Freud\u2009para\u2009
superar\u2009justamente\u2009as\u2009dificuldades\u2009contidas\u2009numa\u2009concepção\u2009paralelista\u2009entre\u2009o\u2009
físico\u2009e\u2009o\u2009psíquico,\u2009senão\u2009vejamos.\u2009Em\u20091891,\u2009no\u2009texto\u2009intitulado\u2009Sobre a concep-
ção das afasias,\u2009escreve\u2009ele:
A\u2009 cadeia\u2009 dos\u2009 processos\u2009 fisiológicos\u2009 no\u2009 sistema\u2009 nervoso\u2009
provavelmente\u2009não\u2009se\u2009apresenta\u2009em\u2009relação\u2009de\u2009causalidade\u2009
com\u2009os\u2009processos\u2009psíquicos.\u2009Os\u2009processos\u2009fisiológicos\u2009não\u2009ces-
sam\u2009tão\u2009logo\u2009tenham\u2009começado\u2009os\u2009psíquicos,\u2009pelo\u2009contrário,\u2009
a\u2009cadeia\u2009fisiológica\u2009prossegue,\u2009só\u2009que,\u2009a\u2009partir\u2009de\u2009um\u2009certo\u2009
momento,\u2009 cada\u2009 elo\u2009 seu\u2009 (ou\u2009 elos\u2009 isolados)\u2009 corresponde\u2009um\u2009
fenômeno\u2009psíquico.\u2009O\u2009psíquico\u2009é\u2009assim\u2009um\u2009processo\u2009paralelo\u2009
ao\u2009 fisiológico\u2009 (\u201cum\u2009 concomitante\u2009 dependente\u201d)\u2009 (FREUD,\u2009
1891,\u2009p.\u200956-57,\u2009tradução\u2009nossa).5
Quer\u2009dizer,\u2009embora\u2009seja\u2009difícil\u2009e\u2009talvez\u2009mesmo\u2009pouco\u2009provável\u2009um\u2009conheci-
mento\u2009definitivo\u2009sobre\u2009o\u2009modo\u2009de\u2009relação\u2009entre\u2009esses\u2009dois\u2009aspectos\u2009da\u2009vida,\u2009certas\u2009
intuições\u2009teóricas\u2009(conceitos\u2009iniciais),\u2009conjugadas\u2009com\u2009outras\u2009premissas\u2009biológi-
cas\u2009(princípio\u2009do\u2009prazer,\u2009p.\u2009ex.)\u2009e\u2009aplicadas\u2009ao\u2009material\u2009de\u2009longa\u2009data\u2009observado\u2009
na\u2009clínica\u2009possibilitaram-lhe\u2009forjar\u2009um\u2009conceito\u2009mediante\u2009o\u2009qual\u2009pôde\u2009conceber\u2009
os\u2009limites\u2009do\u2009terreno\u2009passível\u2009de\u2009uma\u2009investigação\u2009psicológica,