Psicologia e liberdade  conhecimento do eu e das coisas
16 pág.

Psicologia e liberdade conhecimento do eu e das coisas


DisciplinaEstágio Supervisionado I13.130 materiais49.823 seguidores
Pré-visualização6 páginas
àqueles\u2009materiais\u2009de\u2009onde\u2009
depreendem\u2009usualmente\u2009sua\u2009síntese,\u2009o\u2009mecanicismo\u2009supõe\u2009que\u2009tudo\u2009na\u2009natureza,\u2009
Leonardo Almada
90\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1, p.\u2009 85-98,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011
inclusive\u2009a\u2009consciência,\u2009é\u2009regido\u2009por\u2009leis\u2009necessárias:\u2009e\u2009mesmo\u2009atingindo\u2009com-
binações\u2009\u201ccada\u2009vez\u2009mais\u2009ricas,\u2009cada\u2009vez\u2009mais\u2009difíceis\u2009de\u2009prever,\u2009cada\u2009vez\u2009mais\u2009
contingentes\u2009aparentemente,\u2009não\u2009sai\u2009do\u2009círculo\u2009estreito\u2009da\u2009necessidade\u2009em\u2009que\u2009
desde\u2009o\u2009princípio\u2009se\u2009encerrava\u201d\u2009(BERGSON,\u20091988[1889],\u2009p.\u200999).\u2009
Daí\u2009porque\u2009o\u2009determinismo\u2009psicológico\u2009se\u2009associa\u2009à\u2009filosofia\u2009do\u2009associa-
cionismo.\u2009Na\u2009compreensão\u2009de\u2009Farias\u2009Brito\u2009(2003a[1914],\u2009p.\u2009244),
[a\u2009 concepção\u2009 associacionista\u2009 faz\u2009 do\u2009 \u201ceu\u201d] um\u2009 agregado\u2009
de\u2009 estados\u2009 exteriores\u2009 que\u2009 se\u2009 distinguem\u2009 uns\u2009 dos\u2009 outros,\u2009
podendo\u2009assim\u2009valer\u2009uns\u2009como\u2009causas,\u2009outros\u2009como\u2009efeitos.\u2009
[Daí\u2009a\u2009crença\u2009de\u2009que]\u2009os\u2009estados\u2009de\u2009consciência\u2009possam\u2009ser\u2009
combinados\u2009ou\u2009separados,\u2009que\u2009possam\u2009ser\u2009justapostos,\u2009que\u2009
se\u2009possam\u2009enfim\u2009sujeitar\u2009a\u2009operações\u2009de\u2009síntese\u2009ou\u2009de\u2009análise,\u2009
como\u2009se\u2009tratasse\u2009de\u2009elementos\u2009químicos.
A\u2009resolução\u2009de\u2009tais\u2009dificuldades\u2009depende\u2009do\u2009esclarecimento\u2009quanto\u2009à\u2009dis-
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netração\u2009mútua.\u2009O\u2009associacionismo\u2009concebe\u2009os\u2009sentimentos\u2009e\u2009as\u2009ideias\u2009a\u2009partir\u2009
de\u2009uma\u2009pluralidade\u2009indefinida\u2009de\u2009fatos\u2009de\u2009consciência,\u2009cuja\u2009aparição\u2009só\u2009se\u2009realiza\u2009
\u201cem\u2009uma\u2009espécie\u2009de\u2009desdobramento\u2009no\u2009meio\u2009homogêneo\u2009que\u2009 alguns\u2009 chamam\u2009
duração\u2009e\u2009que,\u2009na\u2009realidade,\u2009é\u2009espaço\u201d\u2009(BERGSON,\u20091988[1889],\u2009p.\u2009116).\u2009O\u2009equí-
voco\u2009do\u2009associacionismo,\u2009destarte,\u2009consiste\u2009em\u2009reduzir\u2009os\u2009fatos\u2009da\u2009consciência\u2009\u2014\u2009
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é,\u2009às\u2009palavras\u2009que\u2009os\u2009exprimem,\u2009o\u2009que\u2009engendra\u2009a\u2009redução\u2009dos\u2009estados\u2009de\u2009cons-
ciência\u2009a\u2009termos\u2009exteriores\u2009uns\u2009aos\u2009outros,\u2009sob\u2009o\u2009paradigma\u2009da\u2009multiplicidade\u2009da\u2009
justaposição.\u2009O\u2009associacionismo\u2009segue\u2009a\u2009interpretação\u2009mais\u2009comum,\u2009no\u2009caso,\u2009a\u2009
de\u2009equiparar\u2009nossa\u2009razão\u2009com\u2009a\u2009ideia\u2009de\u2009espaço\u2009e\u2009com\u2009o\u2009poder\u2009de\u2009criar\u2009símbolos,\u2009
assim\u2009suplantando\u2009o\u2009fenômeno\u2009concreto\u2009\u2014\u2009que\u2009ocorre\u2009no\u2009espírito\u2009\u2014\u2009em\u2009vista\u2009
de\u2009uma\u2009reconstituição\u2009artificial.\u2009O\u2009associacionismo\u2009se\u2009baseia\u2009em\u2009um\u2009fato\u2009real,\u2009a\u2009
saber:\u2009\u201co\u2009\u2018eu\u2019\u2009toca\u2009no\u2009mundo\u2009exterior\u2009pela\u2009sua\u2009superfície;\u2009e\u2009como\u2009esta\u2009superfície\u2009
conserva\u2009a\u2009marca\u2009das\u2009coisas,\u2009associará\u2009por\u2009contiguidade\u2009termos\u2009que\u2009percepciona-
ra\u2009justapostos\u201d\u2009(BERGSON,\u20091988[1889],\u2009p.\u2009115).\u2009
Quando,\u2009porém,\u2009adentramos\u2009na\u2009consciência,\u2009isto\u2009é,\u2009à\u2009medida\u2009que\u2009o\u2009\u201ceu\u201d\u2009
se\u2009volta\u2009para\u2009si\u2009mesmo,\u2009os\u2009seus\u2009estados\u2009de\u2009consciência\u2009não\u2009se\u2009justificam\u2009mais\u2009em\u2009
justaposição,\u2009mas\u2009apresentam-se\u2009em\u2009sua\u2009íntima\u2009e\u2009recíproca\u2009penetração,\u2009fundindo-
se\u2009e\u2009colorindo-se\u2009em\u2009função\u2009da\u2009cor\u2009de\u2009todos\u2009os\u2009outros.\u2009Trata-se\u2009daquilo\u2009que\u2009Farias\u2009
Brito\u2009(2003a[1914],\u2009p.\u2009243)\u2009pensara\u2009quando\u2009afirmou\u2009que,\u2009\u201cpela\u2009organização\u2009dos\u2009
estados\u2009psicológicos,\u2009uma\u2009realidade\u2009se\u2009constitui,\u2009que\u2009é\u2009inteiramente\u2009distinta\u2009da\u2009
realidade\u2009exterior;\u2009que\u2009não\u2009ocupa\u2009espaço,\u2009se\u2009bem\u2009que\u2009tenha\u2009por\u2009destino\u2009próprio\u2009
agir\u2009sobre\u2009as\u2009coisas\u2009no\u2009espaço\u201d.\u2009É\u2009nesse\u2009sentido\u2009que\u2009o\u2009\u201ceu\u201d\u2009toca\u2009no\u2009mundo\u2009ex-
terior\u2009pela\u2009superfície,\u2009isto\u2009é,\u2009na\u2009medida\u2009em\u2009que\u2009seu\u2009destino\u2009próprio\u2009consiste\u2009em\u2009
agir\u2009sobre\u2009as\u2009coisas\u2009no\u2009espaço.\u2009E\u2009é\u2009no\u2009mesmo\u2009sentido\u2009de\u2009Bergson\u2009que\u2009Farias\u2009Brito\u2009
(2003a[1914],\u2009p.\u2009244)\u2009considera\u2009a\u2009existência\u2009própria\u2009do\u2009\u201ceu\u201d\u2009como\u2009sui generis 
e\u2009particular,\u2009realizada\u2009\u201cpor\u2009fusão\u2009e\u2009penetração\u2009dos\u2009estados\u2009psicológicos,\u2009não\u2009por\u2009
justaposição,\u2009e\u2009de\u2009onde,\u2009por\u2009isto\u2009mesmo,\u2009é\u2009em\u2009absoluto\u2009excluída\u2009toda\u2009a\u2009multipli-
cidade\u2009numérica\u201d.\u2009Tal\u2009compreensão\u2009leva\u2009Farias\u2009Brito\u2009a\u2009reiterar\u2009a\u2009ideia\u2009bergsonia-
Psicologia\u2009e\u2009liberdade:\u2009conhecimento\u2009do\u2009\u201ceu\u201d\u2009e\u2009das\u2009coisas
Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1,\u2009 p.\u2009 85-98,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 91
na\u2009de\u2009\u201ceu\u201d como\u2009\u201cheterogeneidade\u2009puramente\u2009qualitativa\u201d\u2009sem\u2009\u201cextensão\u201d\u2009nem\u2009
\u201cquantidade\u201d,\u2009de\u2009onde\u2009retira\u2009a\u2009ideia\u2009de\u2009que\u2009uma\u2009\u2018ciência\u2009do\u2009espírito\u2019\u2009deve\u2009ter\u2009em\u2009
conta\u2009a\u2009mônada\u2009impalpável,\u2009ativa\u2009e\u2009pensante,\u2009o\u2009átomo\u2009inextenso,\u2009princípio\u2009mes-
mo\u2009de\u2009ação\u2009e,\u2009por\u2009tudo\u2009isso,\u2009energia\u2009viva\u2009e\u2009força\u2009criadora.\u2009Daí\u2009considerar,\u2009com\u2009
Bergson\u2009(1988[1889],\u2009p.\u2009116),\u2009uma\u2009psicologia\u2009grosseira\u2009aquela\u2009que\u2009nos\u2009apresenta\u2009
a\u2009alma\u2009determinada\u2009seja\u2009por\u2009uma\u2009simpatia,\u2009por\u2009uma\u2009aversão\u2009ou\u2009pelo\u2009ódio:\u2009\u201cesses\u2009
sentimentos,\u2009contanto\u2009que\u2009tenham\u2009atingido\u2009uma\u2009profundidade\u2009suficiente,\u2009repre-
sentam\u2009cada\u2009um\u2009a\u2009alma\u2009inteira,\u2009no\u2009sentido\u2009de\u2009que\u2009todo\u2009o\u2009conteúdo\u2009da\u2009alma\u2009se\u2009
reflete\u2009em\u2009cada\u2009um\u2009deles\u201d.
Conceber\u2009a\u2009alma\u2009a\u2009partir\u2009de\u2009 tal\u2009noção\u2009de\u2009determinação\u2009é\u2009conceber\u2009equi-
vocamente\u2009a\u2009alma\u2009se\u2009determinando\u2009a\u2009si\u2009mesma.\u2009Reduzir\u2009o\u2009\u201ceu\u201d\u2009a\u2009um\u2009agregado\u2009
de\u2009 fatos\u2009de\u2009consciência,\u2009 sensações,\u2009 sentimentos\u2009e\u2009 ideias,\u2009é\u2009conceber\u2009os\u2009estados\u2009
de\u2009consciência\u2009a\u2009partir\u2009do\u2009nome\u2009que\u2009os\u2009exprime,\u2009é\u2009reter\u2009o\u2009que\u2009os\u2009estados\u2009têm\u2009de\u2009
impessoal,\u2009de\u2009onde\u2009se\u2009segue\u2009sua\u2009justaposição\u2009indefinida\u2009e,\u2009assim,\u2009a\u2009mera\u2009obtenção\u2009
de\u2009\u201cum\u2009\u2018eu\u2019\u2009fantasma,\u2009a\u2009\u2018sombra\u2019\u2009do\u2009\u2018eu\u2019\u2009que\u2009se\u2009projeta\u2009no\u2009espaço\u201d\u2009(BERGSON,\u2009
1988[1889],\u2009p.\u2009116).\u2009Se,\u2009pelo\u2009contrário,\u2009formos\u2009capazes\u2009de\u2009representar\u2009os\u2009estados\u2009
de\u2009consciência\u2009naquilo\u2009que\u2009têm\u2009de\u2009próprio\u2009e\u2009inexprimível,\u2009torna-se\u2009desnecessário\u2009
associar\u2009os\u2009estados\u2009de\u2009consciência\u2009para\u2009reconstituir\u2009a\u2009pessoa.\u2009A\u2009pessoa\u2009toda\u2009se\u2009en-
contra\u2009em\u2009cada\u2009um\u2009deles,\u2009e\u2009em\u2009um\u2009só\u2009deles.\u2009É\u2009neste\u2009fato,\u2009no\u2009qual\u2009um\u2009estado\u2009interno\u2009
encontra\u2009manifestação\u2009 exterior,\u2009 que\u2009 encontramos\u2009 aquilo\u2009 que\u2009podemos\u2009designar\u2009
propriamente\u2009por\u2009ato\u2009livre.\u2009A\u2009manifestação\u2009exterior\u2009de\u2009um\u2009estado\u2009interno\u2009é\u2009o\u2009pró-
prio\u2009ato\u2009livre,\u2009já\u2009que\u2009só\u2009o\u2009\u201ceu\u201d\u2009será\u2009o\u2009seu\u2009autor,\u2009ou\u2009seja,\u2009já\u2009que\u2009se\u2009trata\u2009da\u2009expressão\u2009
do\u2009\u201ceu\u201d\u2009total.\u2009Daí\u2009Farias\u2009Brito\u2009(2003a[1914],\u2009p.\u2009245)\u2009dizer\u2009que\u2009neste\u2009\u201ceu\u201d\u2009assim\u2009
concebido,\u2009 cada\u2009 sentimento,\u2009 cada\u2009emoção,\u2009 cada\u2009concepção\u2009 se\u2009 confunde\u2009com\u2009o\u2009
todo\u2009e\u2009forma\u2009uma\u2009só\u2009pessoa\u2009com\u2009ele:\u2009\u201cquem\u2009não\u2009vê\u2009que\u2009aí\u2009[no\u2009associacionismo]\u2009
se\u2009considera\u2009não\u2009o\u2009\u2018eu\u2019,\u2009mas\u2009simplesmente\u2009a\u2009sua\u2009projeção\u2009exterior\u2009no\u2009espaço,\u2009não\u2009
a\u2009consciência,\u2009mas\u2009o\u2009seu\u2009fantasma\u2009objetivo?\u201d.\u2009Há\u2009vida\u2009em\u2009tudo\u2009o\u2009que\u2009se\u2009agita\u2009na\u2009
alma,\u2009e\u2009mais\u2009que\u2009isso,\u2009cada\u2009sentimento,\u2009cada\u2009estado\u2009de\u2009consciência,\u2009cada\u2009paixão\u2009e\u2009
emoção,\u2009concebidos\u2009per si,\u2009refletem\u2009a\u2009alma\u2009inteira,\u2009constituem\u2009o\u2009\u201ceu\u201d\u2009verdadeiro.
Um\u2009ato\u2009é\u2009tanto\u2009mais\u2009livre\u2009quanto\u2009mais\u2009a\u2009decisão\u2009livre\u2009é\u2009emanada\u2009pela\u2009alma\u2009
inteira,\u2009isto\u2009é,\u2009\u201cquanto\u2009mais\u2009a\u2009série\u2009dinâmica\u2009a\u2009que\u2009se\u2009religa\u2009tender\u2009para\u2009se\u2009iden-
tificar\u2009com\u2009o\u2009\u2018eu\u2019\u2009fundamental\u201d\u2009(BERGSON,\u20091988[1889],\u2009p.\u2009117).\u2009O\u2009mesmo\u2009diz\u2009
Farias\u2009Brito\u2009(2003a[1914],\u2009p.\u2009246),\u2009para\u2009quem:\u2009
O\u2009 ato\u2009 só\u2009 é\u2009 livre\u2009 quando\u2009 emana\u2009 diretamente\u2009 da\u2009 alma,\u2009
quando\u2009é\u2009obra\u2009do\u2009\u201ceu\u201d,\u2009considerado\u2009este\u2009na\u2009sua\u2009significação\u2009
real\u2009 e\u2009 concreta\u2009 como\u2009 organização\u2009 dinâmica\u2009 dos\u2009 estados\u2009
psicológicos\u2009sucessivos.\u2009Mas\u2009é\u2009necessário\u2009que\u2009estes\u2009estados\u2009
psicológicos\u2009sejam\u2009considerados\u2009com\u2009a\u2009coloração\u2009particular\u2009
que\u2009 revestem\u2009 numa\u2009 pessoa\u2009 determinada\u2009 e\u2009 que\u2009 lhes\u2009 vem,\u2009
a\u2009 cada\u2009um,\u2009 do\u2009 reflexo\u2009de\u2009 todos\u2009 os\u2009 outros,\u2009 de\u2009maneira\u2009 que\u2009
não\u2009é\u2009necessário\u2009associar\u2009muitos\u2009 fatos\u2009de\u2009consciência\u2009para\u2009
reconstituir\u2009a\u2009pessoa;\u2009ela\u2009está\u2009toda\u2009inteira\u2009em\u2009um\u2009só\u2009de\u2009entre\u2009
eles,\u2009contanto\u2009que\u2009se\u2009saiba\u2009escolher.
Leonardo Almada
92\u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 \u2009 Fractal:\u2009 Revista\u2009 de\u2009 Psicologia,\u2009 v.\u2009 23\u2009 \u2013\u2009 n.\u2009 1, p.\u2009 85-98,\u2009 Jan./Abr.\u2009 2011
Mas\u2009é\u2009em\u2009função\u2009do\u2009fato\u2009de\u2009que\u2009o\u2009\u201ceu\u201d\u2009toca\u2009no\u2009mundo\u2009exterior\u2009pela\u2009super-
fície\u2009a\u2009razão\u2009pela\u2009qual\u2009não\u2009podemos\u2009dizer\u2009que\u2009a\u2009liberdade\u2009no\u2009homem\u2009é\u2009absoluta,\u2009
como\u2009preconizara\u2009o\u2009espiritualismo\u2009e\u2009o\u2009dualismo.\u2009Nesse\u2009sentido,\u2009cumpre\u2009ressaltar\u2009
o\u2009reconhecimento\u2009bergsoniano\u2009quanto\u2009ao\u2009fato\u2009de\u2009a\u2009consciência\u2009reconhecer\u2009duas\u2009di-
mensões\u2009distintas\u2009de\u2009vida:\u2009ao\u2009lado\u2009da\u2009dimensão\u2009inerente\u2009ao\u2009eu\u2009profundo,\u2009devemos\u2009
lembrar\u2009sua\u2009constante\u2009ocupação\u2009com\u2009uma\u2009vida\u2009superficial.\u2009Daí\u2009a\u2009razão\u2009pela\u2009qual\u2009
nem\u2009sempre\u2009é\u2009suficiente\u2009dizer\u2009que\u2009a\u2009primeira\u2009destas\u2009duas\u2009dimensões\u2009é\u2009o\u2009reino\u2009da\u2009
qualidade\u2009e\u2009que\u2009a\u2009segunda\u2009e\u2009o\u2009reino\u2009da\u2009quantidade:\u2009mais\u2009que\u2009isso,\u2009referimo-nos\u2009a\u2009
dois\u2009modos\u2009qualitativamente\u2009diferentes\u2009do\u2009\u201cviver\u201d\u2009da\u2009consciência.\u2009Se,\u2009por\u2009um\u2009lado,\u2009
há\u2009uma\u2009consciência\u2009mais\u2009interna,\u2009de\u2009qualidade\u2009mais\u2009especificamente\u2009espontânea\u2009e\u2009
dinâmica,\u2009há\u2009também\u2009uma\u2009consciência\u2009mais\u2009externa,\u2009de\u2009qualidade\u2009mais\u2009passiva\u2009e\u2009
inerte.\u2009E,\u2009com\u2009efeito,\u2009é\u2009tal\u2009gradação\u2009de\u2009qualidades\u2009no\u2009interior\u2009da\u2009consciência\u2009o\u2009que\u2009
nos\u2009permite\u2009afirmar\u2009que,\u2009em\u2009Bergson,\u2009também\u2009a\u2009liberdade\u2009admite\u2009graus.
Eis\u2009a\u2009razão\u2009pela\u2009qual\u2009Bergson