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Name: Edmilson Valter Macamo Adverbs Definition: Adverbs are words that can describe verbs. In order to understand what Adverbs are, we need first to have a basic understanding of verbs. Verbs are a part of speech, just like Adverbs. We can define a verb as an arrangement of the word(s) or syntax conveying any noun’s action, occurrence, or state. Some examples of verbs are- read, become, walk, exist, run, bake, etc. Now, we can understand the meaning of Adverbs in relation to verbs in English grammar. In simple words, an adverb is a word that describes verbs. Adverbs are also used to add or modify the meaning of an adjective, a verb, a preposition, a sentence, a clause. We can add more information to the words, using different kinds of Adverbs. Hence, Adverbs are a part of speech and express the manner, time, place, frequency, degree, and much more about a verb. They also act as a verb phrase which includes a verb and its dependents. For example, 'a man is moving.’ The sentence doesn't give us any information other than that there is a man who is moving, but if we add an adverb here and write: 'A man is moving briskly.’ it shows that there is a man who is moving fast because maybe he is getting late for work or he has to go early. More Examples of Adverbs used in Sentences 1. “Rita is lying quietly in the snow.”, where ‘quietly’ is the adverb that describes the quality of the verb ‘lying in the snow’, making ‘quietly’ the adverb describing the manner of lying in the snow. 2. “I walked to the school early.”, where ‘early’ is the adverb that describes the quality of the verb ‘walked to the school’, making ‘early’ the adverb describing the time of walking to school. 3. “Do you go to the market often?”, where ‘often’ is the adverb that describes the quality of the verb ‘go to the market’, making ‘often’ the adverb describing the frequency of going to the market. Different Types of Adverbs with Examples Now, there are three kinds of Adverbs, and they are as follows. · Simple Adverbs · Interrogative Adverbs · Relative Adverbs Simple Adverbs Simple Adverbs contain only one word and they are the most used Adverbs. Simple Adverbs are further divided into many parts, and here are six types of Adverbs under Simple Adverbs. Examples of Simple Adverbs: 1. I am visiting my grandmother this weekend. 2. The flowers on her balcony are extremely beautiful. 3. My little sister almost got lost at the carnival. 4. Riya likes to visit the museum because she is an art fanatic. Adverb of Time Whenever you want to add information of 'when' to a verb, the adverb of time will be your answer. So, we can say that an adverb of time shows the time or moment of doing a task. For example, 'I will go there tomorrow.' So, if you ask me when I go? I will answer it by saying 'tomorrow' So, here, tomorrow is the adverb of time that provides information regarding the time of the happening of an event. Adverbs of Place Whenever you want to add information of 'where' to a verb, the adverb of place will be your answer. So, we can say that an adverb of the place shows the place where the task is being done or has to be done. For example, 'You may sit there.' So, if you ask where you may sit? The answer will be 'there'. So, here, 'there' is the adverb of time that shows the place of the happening of an event. Adverbs of Frequency Whenever you want to add information regarding 'how often' to a verb, the adverb of frequency will be your answer. So, we can say that an adverb of the frequency shows the frequency with which the task has to be done. For example, 'I go for a walk daily.' So, if you ask how often do I go for a walk? The answer will be 'daily'. So, here, 'daily' is the adverb of frequency that shows how often an event takes place. Adverbs of Manner Whenever you want to add information regarding 'how' or 'in what way', the adverb of manner will be used, so, we can say that an adverb of manner shows the form with which the task has to be done. For example, 'I speak beautifully.' So, if you ask how do I speak? I will answer it by saying 'beautifully'. So, here, 'beautifully' is the adverb manner that shows how or in what way an event takes place. Adverbs of Degree Whenever you want to answer something starting from 'how much' or 'to what degree or extent', the adverb of degree will be your answer. So, we can say that an adverb of degree shows the degree or extent to which the task has been done. For instance: 'He is extremely talented.' So, if you question me, how often is he talented? I will answer it by saying 'extremely'. So, here, 'extremely' is the adverb of degree that shows with what degree an event takes place. Adverb of Reason Whenever you want to answer something, starting from 'why', the adverb of reason will be your answer. So, we can say that an adverb of reason shows the reason behind doing a particular task. For instance: 'I go there because I love that place.' So, if you question me, why do I go there? I will answer it by saying 'because I love the place'. So, here, 'because' is the adverb of the reason that shows why an event happens. Interrogative Adverbs Whenever you ask a question and the question word is used as an adverb, you are using interrogation Adverbs. They possess a unique feature, and that is, they are placed at the beginning of a sentence. For instance: 'Why do you talk to him?' Here, ‘why’ is a question word used as an adverb. So, ‘why’ is an interrogation adverb. Examples of interrogative Adverbs: 1. Why are you painting the canvas? 2. How is your brother feeling? 3. Where did Mala keep all the books from the teacher? 4. Is Joey coming with us? 5. What are your friends wearing to the party? Relative Adverbs Whenever an adverb is used to relate or connect or join any two sentences, we use relative Adverbs. These Adverbs are just three- where, when, and why. For instance: 'I met him when no one was around.' Here, ‘when’ is the adverb that connects the two sentences that have I met him and No one was around. So, here, ‘when’ is the relative adverb. Examples of relative Adverbs: 1. I was already walking home when it started to rain. 2. Luke has been missing classes because he is sick with the flu. 3. Maria called my phone while I was driving the car. 4. You can go to the music festival only if Jean is going with you. 5. In case your subscription ends today, recharge it by using your credit card. So, eight types of Adverbs are mentioned here, which can be used anywhere to make the text more informative. Presposition Definition: Sentences will not make any sense if prepositions are not present. Basically they indicate the relationship between the noun and the other words in the sentence. They show the relationships of sequence, space, and logic between the object and the rest of the sentence. They help us understand the order, time, connections and position. We use a preposition to relate a noun or a pronoun to some other word in the sentence. For example, in the sentence, “The players on the field are tired.” The preposition “on” shows the relationship between ‘players’ and ‘field’. Prepositions show how other words in a sentence are related. Many prepositions indicate the location of something or the time it occurred. Because most prepositions have many definitions, their meaning varies greatly depending on the context. It is not a grammatical error to end a sentence with a preposition. Prepositions describe the location or timing of something in relation to something else. It's useful to have these specific words to tell us where monsters are while they're approaching. Are they in front of us or behind us? Will they show there in three seconds or at 12 a.m.? Prepositions are frequently used to indicate the location of one noun in relation to another (e.g., The coffee is on the table beside you). However, they can also be used to convey more abstract concepts like purpose or contrast (e.g., We went for a walk despite the rain) Some examples of Prepositions- At, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, andwith are the most prevalent prepositions. About, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, because of, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, close to, down, during, except, inside, instead of, into, like, near, off, on top of, onto, out of, outside, over, past, since, through, toward, under, until, up, upon, within, without. Prepositions Come in a Variety of Forms Direction, time, location, and geographical linkages, as well as other abstract sorts of relationships, are all indicated by prepositions. Directions: Our destination can be found to the left. Time: Since this morning, we've been working. Location: We went to the theater to see a movie. Example: Tonight, we'll be cooking for ten people. Space: The dog hid beneath the table. Example: Dan shared a meal with his boss. Prepositions are known as the "largest small words" in English because, despite their modest length, they are crucial to the meaning of the phrase. A misplaced preposition can make all the difference between a well-written phrase and a tangle of words. Prepositions, on the other hand, provide the glue between elements of a sentence, allowing you to present your scientific findings more precisely and professionally when employed correctly. Prepositions connect nouns, pronouns, or phrases (known as the preposition's object) to other words in a sentence. They show how their item is related to another word or component of the sentence in terms of time, space, or logic. Examples: 1. The airplane flew over our house. 2. She sat on the chair. 3. The cups are kept above the plates. 4. The book belongs to Muskan. 5. They were sitting by the pool. 6. The dog jumped off the counter. 7. There is some curd in the fridge. 8. The napkin is placed beside the plate. 9. His house is across the street. 10. My book is next to the laptop. 11. The gas station is by the medical store. 12. I always go to work by bus. 13. Is the tea too hot for you? 14. The cat is hiding underneath the chair. 15. They have a discussion about cricket. Preposition - An Explanation of Examples 1. Seema went to the mal “To” is a preposition which shows direction. 0. What is the time on your watch? “By” is a preposition which shows manners. 0. They arrived at the airport. “At” is a preposition which shows time. 0. The bag is under the table. “Under” is a preposition which shows place. Kinds of Preposition Single Prepositions Prepositions which contain only one word are known as Single Prepositions. For eg- on, at, in, to for, of, from, up, etc. He was in the hotel for the party. She bought a gift for her son. The postmen left the parcel at the door. Double Prepositions When there is more than one word of prepositions present, it is known as Double preposition. For eg- Upto, within, etc. Compound Preposition: Compound prepositions consist of two or more words. For Example: Participle Preposition: Participle preposition consists of words that end in “ing”. These are verbs which act as a preposition. For Example: 1. She talked regarding the social structure. 2. Considering the fact that it is cloudy, it might rain tonight. 3. Everyone attended the royal wedding, including the celebrities. Preposition on the Basis of Functionality Various types of prepositions on the basis of the functionality are: Preposition of Time This kind of preposition indicates when it indicates the time factor in the sentence. Pointing out an action which happened, happens or will happen in the future. Example 1. Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2nd of October. 2. I will reach there after sunset. 3. Hope we can reach there before sunrise. Certain Rules to Follow Use in for Years, months, centuries, time of a day and seasons. Use on for Days, dates and specific holidays. Use at for Time exceptions and festivals. Preposition of Place These kinds of prepositions are used to indicate a place or position. The most interesting thing is that the prepositions used in this are also in, at, on, which were used for time prepositions as well. But, there is nothing very you can easily understand about how to place them. Examples: 1. Book is on the table. 2. The bag is in the cupboard. 3. We like books at the bookstore. On When we use a preposition for a surface. In When we use to refer something inside at When we refer to a specific point There are other prepositions of place as well like, Outside, inside, under, over, near. Preposition of Movement This preposition indicates the direction in which someone or something is moving. The most common preposition used is to. Examples: 1. We are going to the railway station. 2. David went to the beach every day for a morning walk. 3. He jumped into the swimming pool. Some other examples are- Across, through, into, over, down, up, past, around. Prepositions of Manner These prepositions describe the way anything happens or any means by which it happens. Few such prepositions are by, like, in with and on. Examples: 1. Children go to school by bus. 2. We went to a movie in a taxi. 3. He played football like champions. Prepositions of Measure These kinds of prepositions show the quantity of something with someone or something. Two main prepositions are by and of. Examples: 1. The Shopkeeper sells the cloth by metres. 2. Richard bought four kilos of tomatoes for soup. Preposition of Source Preposition of source demonstrates the source of something or someone. Examples: 1. She was paid a scholarship by her college for all her semesters. 2. All the love the child received was straight from his mother’s heart. Preposition of Possession This preposition shows that something or someone belongs to something or someone. Such as of, with and to. Some Examples 1. I saw her with a black dress. 2. This burger joint is of a well known political leader. These are the kinds of prepositions and practising more exercises will make you the master of Prepositions. Adjetives Definition: An adjective is a part of speech used in a sentence to define the qualities of a noun or an adjective. In a nutshell, you can depict an adjective as a describing word. There are different kinds of adjectives you will find in English grammar. These adjectives can define a person, place, animal, thing, event, action, etc. Now that you have understood what is the definition of an adjective, let us study the different kinds of adjectives used in English grammar. Kinds of Adjectives Descriptive Adjectives This kind of adjective is used to define the features and quality of a noun. If you ask questions- ‘of what kind’, ‘of what nature’, etc, you will get the adjective as the answer. The fluffy dog rolled on the green grass. Kolkata is a big city. ‘Fluffy’ and ‘big’ are used as adjectives to define the dog and Kolkata respectively. Quantitative Adjectives Quantitative adjectives are used to define an amount or quantity of a noun. These adjectives can either define a particular amount or an estimation. For example- some, many, much, few, etc. Let us find out what is meant by the adjective used in this case. Definitive Adjectives As you can figure out from the name, these adjectives indicate a particular number of amount of a noun. For example: 1. I have two apples in my bag. 2. She has three pens. In-Definitive Adjectives These adjectives fall in the quantitative section but are unable to define a proper amount or quantity of a noun. For example, few, much, many, some, etc. Some of my friends were absent today. A few of us fell sick on the way. Distributive Adjectives These adjectives are used to define a specific number among a group. For example- They have two apples each in their bags. Neither of you was able to answer. Possessive Adjectives These adjectives are used to declare possession or expressing ownership of a particular noun in a sentence. My dog is very energetic. His way of describing a fact is fun. You can easily understand that these adjectives are the answer to the question of ‘Whose?’. The other examples of this kind are ours, mine, theirs, his, her, our,etc. Demonstrative Adjectives If you consider the literal meaning of this kind of adjective, you will find that they are used to answer the question ‘which?’. Look at this girl singing! Such rains cause floods in the cities. This edition is the best in class. Interrogative adjectives These adjectives are used to ask a question and generally precede all the words. What kind of cats do you like? Which is your favourite player? Not all interrogative adjectives ask a question. ‘What’ adjective can also be used in an exclamatory sentence. What a beautiful flower! This adjective is used to exclaim that the flower is beautiful. After learning the adjective and its types, we can infer that they are generally formed by adding a suffix. The general rules are: · Adding ‘y’ (after removing ‘e’ if present at the end of a word)- hairy, glossy, scary. · Adding ‘al’ (after removing ‘e’ if present at the end of a word)- natural, national, financial. · Adding ‘ly’- kindly, timely. · Adding ‘ful’(replace ‘y’ at the end with ‘i’)- beautiful, playful. · Adding ‘ory’ (removing ‘e’ at the end)- advisory, introductory. · Adding ‘ic’ (removing ‘y’)- energetic, mystic. · Adding ‘ous’ (if ends with ‘e’, remove it. Replace ‘y’ with ‘I’)- famous, mysterious. · Adding ‘ive’ (remove ‘ion’ and ‘e’)- impulsive, descriptive. · Adding ‘ish’- reddish, brownish. Use of Comparative Adjectives The comparative adjective is used to indicate the symbol of one object (noun or pronoun) compared to another object (only one object). It makes comparisons between two items (not more than two). Words like 'kuna' and 'to' are used after the comparative adjective in a sentence. Examples: 1. The bus is bigger than a car. 2. The bed is heavier than a chair. 3. John is taller than Sarah 4. He is three years older than I am. 5. A car is faster than a bicycle. Use of Superlative Adjective The superlative adjective is used to indicate the symbol of one object compared to many other (more than one) objects. Comparing one thing with many other things A very high degree produces the highest thickness (i.e., quality or quantity) of an object compared to other objects. In other words, the higher adverb indicates that one thing exceeds all other things in certain respects. For example, John is the tallest boy in his class. It means that John is taller than all the boys in his class. No other boy, in his class, is taller than John. It compares John's height with that of all the other students in his class. See the following additional examples.