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The preliminary stage of maintaining contact with the controllee is best seen in the career of the 
entertainer or, somewhat less obviously, the writer, artist, or musician. People of this sort exploit 
their relatively poor sources of control almost exclusively to increase the probability that the 
controllee will come back for more. The principal technique is reinforcement. We might say, in fact, 
that it is the business of the entertainer, writer, artist, or musician to create reinforcing events. (p. 
36 3 1S2S 
Physical force is the most immediately effective technique available to those who have the 
necessary power. In its most immediately personal form it is exemplified by the wrestler who 
suppresses the behavior of his opponent through sheer physical restraint. The most extreme form of 
restraint is death: the individual is kept from behaving by being killed. Less extreme forms include 
the use of handcuffs, strait jackets, jails, concentration camps, and so on. 
These all suggest violent control, often for extremely selfish purposes, but even highly civilized 
societies use physical restraint in the control of children, criminals, and the dangerously insane. (p. 
38 3 1S 
If the individual possesses money or goods, he may use them for purposes of reinforcement in the 
form of wages, bribes, or gratuities. If he is in a position to do someone a favor, he can reinforce 
accordingly. He may also be able to offer his own physical labor, either to an employer in return for 
wages or to a friend in return for a particular action. Sexual stimulation is a common form of 
reinforcement and is widely used in personal control. (p. 317) 
39 3 1S 
Negative reinforcement is employed in personal control in the aversive cry of the child and the 
nuisance value of the behavior of an adult. Control is achieved by making the withdrawal of these 
aversive stimuli contingent upon the response to be strengthened. Forgiveness and acquittal are 
similarly reinforcing. The bully who pommels another boy until he cries "Uncle!", the police who 
employ the third degree to obtain a confession, and the nation which makes war until the enemy 
surrenders, exemplify the same use of aversive stimulation. (p. 317) 
40 3 1S 
[Personal control] Punishment as the removal of positive reinforcers, conditioned or unconditioned, 
is exemplified by cutting a dependent off "without a cent", refusing to supply food or shelter 
previously given, imposing economic sanctions, and refusing customary sexual contact. Another 
important example is withholding customary social stimulation, as in snubbing an acquaintance or 
"putting a schoolboy on silence". Lesser degrees of such punishments are social neglect and 
inattention. (p. 318) 
41 3 1S 
[Personal control] Physical injury is exemplified by spanking a child, striking an adult, and attacking 
a nation. Conditioned aversive stimuli, many of them verbal, are exemplified by disapproval and 
criticism, by damning and cursing, by ridicule, and by the carrying of bad news. (p. 318) 
42 3 1S 
[Personal control] It is possible to use techniques based upon reinforcement and punishment without 
being able to control the events in question. A considerable effect may be achieved simply by 
clarifying the relation between behavior and its consequences. The instructor in sports, crafts, or 
artistic activities may directly reinforce the behavior he is trying to establish, but he may also simply 
point up the contingency between a given form of behavior and the result - "Notice the effect you 
get when you hold the brush this way", "Strike the key this way and see if it isn't easier", "If you 
swing the club this way, you won't slice the ball", and so on. (p. 319) 
43 3 1S 
[Personal control] If we are controlling a child's behavior through reinforcement with candy, it is 
well to make sure that little candy is received at other times. Deprivation may also be used to control 
behavior which has been strengthened by generalized rein-forcers. To evoke behavior which has 
been reinforced with money, one procedure is to deprive the individual in such a way as to 
strengthen behavior which can be executed only with money. For example, a man is made 
susceptible to bribery by encouraging him to follow a mode of living in which money is an 
important requirement. Satiation is a common technique of control which is particularly effective in 
eliminating unwanted behavior. A child stops teasing for candy when he is given all he will eat. One 
may satiate an aggressor by submitting to him - by "turning the other cheek". (p. 319) 
44 4 1S 
The individual is subjected to a more powerful control when two or more persons manipulate 
variables having a common effect upon his behavior. This will happen if two or more persons are 
moved to control him in the same way. (p. 323) 
45 4 1S2S 
Since an individual may affect all other members of a group in this way, their countercontrol may be 
undertaken in concert. All the other members become what we may designate as the controlling 
group. The group acts as a unit insofar as its members are affected by the individual in the same 
way. It need not to be highly organized, but some sort of organization usually develops. Controlling 
practices acquire a certain uniformity from the cohesive forces which lead individuals to take part 
in group action (Chapter XIX) and from their mode of transmission from one generation to another. 
(p. 323-324) 
46 4 1S 
The principal technique employed in the control of the individual by any group of people who have 
lived together for a sufficient length of time is as follows. The behavior of the individual is 
classified as either "good" or "bad" or, to the same effect, "right" or "wrong" and is reinforced or 
punished accordingly. ... The behavior of an individual is usually called good or right insofar as it 
reinforces other members of the group and bad or wrong insofar as it is aversive. (p. 324) 
47 4 1S2S 
The actual controlling practices are usually obvious. Good behavior is reinforced, and bad behavior 
punished. The conditioned aversive stimulation generated by bad behavior as the result of 
punishment is associated with an emotional pattern commonly called "shame". The individual 
responses to this when he "feels ashamed of himself". ... Another part of the reaction of shame is a 
conspicuous change in normal dispositions - the social offender acts in a shamefaced manner. (p. 
48 4 1S 
In explaining any given instance of group control we have to show how the behavior of the 
controller is interlocked with that of the controllee in a social system. We must also show that both 
are adequately accounted for by the specified variables. In a given instance, good behavior on the 
part of A may be positively reinforced by B because it generates an emotional disposition on the 
part of B to "do good" to A. (p. 325) 
49 4 1S 
Another possibility is that the group appropriately reinforces good behavior just because the 
probability of similar behavior in the future is thus increased. The gratuity may be given to 
guarantee similar service in the future; it then has nothing to do with gratitude as an emotional 
disposition to favor others. The community also teaches each member to thank or praise the 
individual who has behaved well and to do so even when the members himself is not directly 
affected. An act of heroism is acclaimed by many people who have not, in this instance, been 
positively reinforced. (p. 326) 
50 4 1S 
The emotional dispositions which lead the members of a group to punish bad behavior are, 
unfortunately, more obvious. ... If A's aggression is momentarily reduced