Computer Networks ISE A Systems Approach_ Fourth Edition_9BabAdru
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Computer Networks ISE A Systems Approach_ Fourth Edition_9BabAdru

DisciplinaTeleprocessamento e Redes de Computadores19 materiais220 seguidores
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Network Management (SNMP) 666
Contents xxvii
9.2 Web Services 668
9.2.1 Custom Application Protocols (WSDL, SOAP) 670
9.2.2 A Generic Application Protocol (REST) 676
9.3 Multimedia Applications 678
9.3.1 Session Control and Call Control (SDP, SIP, H.323) 679
9.3.2 Resource Allocation for Multimedia Applications 688
9.4 Overlay Networks 693
9.4.1 Routing Overlays 695
9.4.2 Peer-to-Peer Networks (Gnutella, BitTorrent) 702
9.4.3 Content Distribution Networks 714
9.5 Summary 719
Open Issue: New Network Architecture 720
Further Reading 721
Exercises 722
Solutions to Select Exercises 729
Glossary 743
Bibliography 769
Index 785
E D I T I O N 4
I must Create a System, or be enslav\u2019d by another Man\u2019s; I will not
Reason and Compare: my business is to Create.
\u2014William Blake
uppose you want to build a computer network, one that has the potential toSgrow to global proportions and to support applications as diverse as telecon-ferencing, video-on-demand, electronic commerce, distributed computing, and
digital libraries. What available technologies would serve as the underlying building
blocks, and what kind of software architecture would you design to integrate these
Building a Network
building blocks into an effective com-
munication service? Answering this
question is the overriding goal of
this book\u2014to describe the available
building materials and then to show
how they can be used to construct
a network from the ground up.
Before we can understand how to design a computer network, we should
first agree on exactly what a computer network is. At one time, the term network
meant the set of serial lines used to attach dumb terminals to mainframe com-
puters. To some, the term implies the voice telephone network. To others, the
only interesting network is the cable network used to disseminate video signals.
The main thing these networks have in common is that they are specialized to
handle one particular kind of data (keystrokes, voice, or video) and they typically
connect to special-purpose devices (terminals, hand receivers, and television sets).
What distinguishes a computer network from these other types of networks? Prob-
ably the most important characteristic of a computer network is its generality. Com-
puter networks are built primarily from general-purpose programmable hardware, and
they are not optimized for a particular application like making phone calls or deliv-
ering television signals. Instead, they are able to carry many different types of data,
and they support a wide, and ever-growing, range of applications. This chapter looks
1at some typical applications of computer networks and discussesthe requirements that a network designer who wishes to supportsuch applications must be aware of.Once we understand the requirements, how do we pro-
ceed? Fortunately, we will not be building the first network.
Others, most notably the community of researchers responsible
for the Internet, have gone before us. We will use the wealth
of experience generated from the Internet to guide our design.
This experience is embodied in a network architecture that iden-
tifies the available hardware and software components and shows
how they can be arranged to form a complete network system.
To start us on the road toward understanding how to build
a network, this chapter does four things. First, it explores the re-
quirements that different applications and different communities
of people (such as network users and network operators) place
on the network. Second, it introduces the idea of a network ar-
chitecture, which lays the foundation for the rest of the book.
Third, it introduces some of the key elements in the implemen-
tation of computer networks. Finally, it identifies the key metrics
that are used to evaluate the performance of computer networks.
4 1 Foundation
1.1 Applications
Most people know the Internet through its applications: the World Wide Web, email,
streaming audio and video, chat rooms, and music (file) sharing. The Web, for example,
presents an intuitively simple interface. Users view pages full of textual and graphical
objects, click on objects that they want to learn more about, and a corresponding new
page appears. Most people are also aware that just under the covers, each selectable object
on a page is bound to an identifier for the next page to be viewed. This identifier, called a
Uniform Resource Locator (URL), is used to provide a way of identifying all the possible
pages that can be viewed from your web browser. For example,
is the URL for a page providing information about one of this book\u2019s authors: the string
http indicates that the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) should be used to down-
load the page, is the name of the machine that serves the
page, and
uniquely identifies Larry\u2019s home page at this site.
What most Web users are not aware of, however, is that by clicking on just one such
URL, as many as 17 messages may be exchanged over the Internet, and this assumes
the page itself is small enough to fit in a single message. This number includes up to
six messages to translate the server name ( into its Internet
address (, three messages to set up a Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) connection between your browser and this server, four messages for your browser
to send the HTTP \u201cget\u201d request and the server to respond with the requested page (and
for each side to acknowledge receipt of that message), and four messages to tear down the
TCP connection. Of course, this does not include the millions of messages exchanged
by Internet nodes throughout the day, just to let each other know that they exist and
are ready to serve web pages, translate names to addresses, and forward messages toward
their ultimate destination.
Another widespread application of the Internet is the delivery of \u201cstreaming\u201d audio
and video. While an entire video file could first be fetched from a remote machine and
then played on the local machine, similar to the process of downloading and displaying
a web page, this would entail waiting for the last second of the video file to be delivered
before starting to look at it. Streaming video implies that the sender and the receiver
are, respectively, the source and the sink for the video stream. That is, the source gener-
ates a video stream (perhaps using a video capture card), sends it across the Internet in
messages, and the sink displays the stream as it arrives.
1.1 Applications 5
There are a variety of different classes of video applications. One class of video ap-
plication is video-on-demand, which reads a preexisting movie from disk and transmits
it over the network. Another kind of application is videoconferencing, which is in some
ways the more challenging (and, for networking people, interesting) case because it has
very tight timing constraints. Just as when using the telephone, the interactions among
the participants must be timely. When a person at one end gestures, then that action
must be displayed at the other end as quickly as possible. Too much delay makes the
system unusable. Contrast this with video-on-demand where, if it takes several seconds
from the time the user starts the video until the first image is displayed, the service is still
deemed satisfactory. Also, interactive video usually implies that video is flowing in both
directions, while a video-on-demand application is most likely sending video in only one
One pioneering example of a videoconferencing tool, developed in the early and
mid-1990s, is vic. Figure 1.1 shows the control panel for a vic session. vic is actually
Figure 1.1 The vic video application. This shot is from a 1995 release of the tool.
6 1 Foundation
one of a suite of conferencing tools designed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and UC
Berkeley. The others