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PETER BROWN
THE PRACTICAL MAGAZINE FOR ARTISTS BY ARTISTS – SINCE 1931
www.painters-online.co.uk DECEMBER 2018 £4.50
artist
How to create depth &
atmosphere
Top tips on drawing &
painting en plein air
ACRYLICS
AERIAL PERSPECTIVE
80 PAGES • WATERCOLOURS • ACRYLICS • OILS • PASTELS & MORE!
Paint a winter cyclamen
and learn new techniques
with Aine Divine
Use glazing techniques for
bright & colourful results
l How to paint marine scenes in watercolour
l Paint house portraits to commission
l Colour choices for watercolour flower paintings
l Capture the shimmering light of seascapes
PLUS
10-STEP GUIDE
TA12p01_cover subs_TA12 Front cover 19/10/2018 16:03 Page 1
Nitram_Charcoal_TheArtist_UK_Dec_2018_Final.pdf 1 2018-10-09 1:38 PM
p02_tadec18.indd 1 18/10/2018 10:40:35
I
have to declare a very personal interest behind my enthusiasm for the current exhibition at
the National Gallery, Courtauld Impressionists: From Manet to Cézanne. I studied for my MA
in European Art from 1850–1910, and subsequent PhD at the Courtauld Institute of Art,
and seeing this exhibition of works from Samuel Courtauld’s collection, donated to The
Courtauld Gallery, was like saying hello to many old friends from my formative art student
days. I used to sketch from many of these paintings to understand better the economy of
means, representation of light, colour and radical compositional ideas encompassed in works
such as Degas’ Woman at a Window 1871–2 and Cézanne’s The Card Players, c1892–6. 
This exhibition provides an ideal opportunity to marvel at the loose technique of the then
sensational Dejeuner sur L’Herbe, c1863–8 by Manet, and his depictions of modern-day life, the
broken brushstrokes, light tones and bright palette of Monet’s Banks at the Seine at Argenteuil,
1874, and the early examples of work created en plein air that so typified the Impressionist
approach. It’s a chance to study the pointillist technique of Seurat, using small spots of colour
to create Young Woman Powdering Herself, 1888–90 and Bridge at Courbevoie, 1886–7. 
This is a wonderful parade of fabulous paintings. Observe the slow, methodical brushwork in
the row of Cézannes, the father of modernism, his daring compositions such as Still Life with
Plaster Cupid, c1894, casting aside the traditional rules of perspective, space and composition,
playing with the whole idea of representation itself. In these Cézannes you see first-hand his
technique of small, parallel brushstrokes, providing an overall coherence and surface harmony,
as in Tall Trees at the Jas de Bouffan, c1883. Or study his ‘constructive technique’ of short,
disciplined brushstrokes in his Self Portrait, c1880–1, in which he expresses the form of the
head in uniform strokes of colour.
There is much to be admired, inspired by and to learn from by today’s artists in this relatively
small exhibition, with gems on every wall. We have much for which to thank Samuel Courtauld
(1876–1947), not least for introducing and opening the nation’s eyes to the wonders of the
French Impressionists and Post Impressionists at a time when these artists were
misunderstood and rejected by the British art establishment. It’s a pity perhaps that this
excellent exhibition couldn’t have been shown outside London for the benefit of a wider
audience, especially when The Courtauld Gallery that houses them is also in London.
Nevertheless with The Courtauld Gallery currently undergoing a temporary closure for
refurbishment, the additional publicity generated by the National Gallery hosting these works
will undoubtedly encourage more people to visit and see them in reality for the first time. I
have never understood why more people don’t appear to know about The Courtauld Gallery
collection, but hopefully when it re-opens it will join the other ‘must-see’ exhibition venues in
the minds of the viewing public.
So, thank you Samuel Courtauld for helping to redirect and change our artistic tastes and
thank you National Gallery for providing this opportunity to see these amazing works in
galleries in which they have been given considerably more room to breathe.
from the editor
WELCOME
Want to comment on something you’ve read, or seen?
Email me at theartistletters@tapc.co.uk, or visit our website at www.painters-online.co.uk/forum
Best wishes
December 2018 3artist
Let us know what you think at • theartistletters@tapc.co.uk • www.painters-online.co.uk/forum 
• www.facebook.com/paintersonline • twitter.com/artpublishing
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www.painters-online.co.uk
incorporating ART & ARTISTS
First established 1931
ISSN 0004-3877
Vol133 No.13
ISSUE 1062
artist
artist
THIS MONTH’S COVER 
Sally Bulgin Publishing Editor
Aine Divine Cyclamen in Orange Vase,
oil over acrylic, 22�153⁄4in (56�40cm).
See pages 26 to 29 
Courtauld Impressionists: From
Manet to Cézanne is on show in The
Wohl Galleries until January 20, 2019.
For more information about The
Courtauld Gallery visit
courtauld.ac.uk/courtauld-connects
TA12_p3_5_Contents_TA04p3_4_Contents 18/10/2018 11:29 Page 5
www.painters-online.co.uk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jason Bowyer NEAC, RP, PS
studied at Camberwell School
of Art and the Royal Academy
Schools. He is the founder of
the NEAC Drawing School and
exhibits his work widely.
David Curtis ROI, RSMA
has won many awards for his
en plein air and figurative
paintings in both oils and
watercolours. He has had
several books published on
his work as well as DVD
films, and exhibits his work
extensively.
Ken Howard OBE, RA
studied at Hornsey School of
Art and the Royal College of
Art. He is a member of the
NEAC, ROI, RWS, RWA and
RBA. He exhibits extensively
and has won numerous
awards.
EDITORIAL
CONSULTANTS
4 December 2018artist
FEATURES
16 The life of Bath
Peter Brown talks about his methods for
working en plein air in both charcoal and oils,
and how he acquired the nickname‘Pete the
Street’ 
78 Charles Williams’ musings
What do we want from art?
PRACTICALS
12 New places, fresh ideas
Michele Del Campo reveals how everyday
events while travelling inspire ideas for his
paintings
20 Glazing with acrylics
Rhéni Tauchid explains how to use acrylic
mediums to produce glazes to enhance your
work, with demonstrations by Connie Morris
and Lorena Kloosterboer
24 November mist
Paul Talbot-Greaves shows you how to use
wet-in-wet watercolour techniques to capture
the mists of autumn 
12
CONTENTS 26 Put some life into your still lifeBe inspired by Aine Divine as she harnesses
her energy to paint a still life of winter
cyclamen in oils over acrylics
30 Aerial perspective
Discover how aerial perspective works and
how to apply it to your painting to show
distance and create atmosphere, with advice
from Peter Burgess
34 Pictures of home
Tips from Sally Barton on how to paint
portraits of people’s homes to commission
36 Furious seas, billowing clouds and
shimmering light
Judith Yates recommends experimenting
with materials and techniques as she
demonstrates a dramatic seascape in acrylics
43 Gardens of light
David Bachmann shares the inspiration and
plein-air working method behind his oil
paintings of the gardens of the Alcázar
46 Thinking outside the box
Try Yael Maimon’s ideas for creating a more
exciting, personal composition that will stand
out and attract attention 
49 En plein air at the coast
There’s plenty of inspiration to be found
when Colin Allbrook heads off for a spot of
plein-air watercolour painting at the coast
36
l Create your own portfolio of artworks in our FREE online gallery
l Give and receive comments, feedback and constructive criticism
l Chat with other artists on a wide range of art-related topics
l Connect with art tutors and art clubs
l Find details of art courses, art shops, galleries, framers and more
l Be inspired by practical painting and drawing demonstrations
l Enter our competitions with great prizes up for grabs
JOIN OUR FRIENDLY ART COMMUNITY ON
PAINTERSONLINE
Register today at 
www.painters-online.co.uk
TA12_p3_5_Contents_TA04p3_4_Contents 18/10/2018 11:29 Page 6
www.painters-online.co.uk
l Learn how to simplify your subject to create a good
likeness in watercolour, by Jake Winkle 
l Ruth Buchanan introduces her new ten-part series on
how to draw and paint animals with confidence 
l Follow Alyona Nickelsen’s demonstrations and
develop your coloured pencil painting techniques 
l Top tips from Bob Brandt on how to paint
successfully from photographs
December 2018 5artist
And much more! Don’t miss out: 
our January issue is on sale from November 30 
NEXT MONTH
IN 
PLUS
l Clare Bowen suggests her ideal colour choices for
achieving the impression of distance and space in
landscapes compositions 
l THE ARTIST’S GUIDE TO OPEN COMPETITIONS 2019:
Don’t miss our annual pullout-and-keep planner
detailing the best open competitions to enter
throughout the year 
u IN CONVERSATION
Royal Academician David
RemfryMBE discusses his
approach to his large-scale
watercolours and links
with the fashion industry,
including drawing for
Stella McCartney
PLUS
u Use your sketchbook
as a place for loosening up
and creative
experimentation, with
guidance from James
Hobbs 
6 First launch of our Call for Entries to The Artist’s 
Open Competition 2019
62 Subscribe to The Artist, save money, and enjoy
free delivery direct to your door
71 Win picture mounts from Cotswold Mounts in
this month’s PaintersOnline competition
73 Save money on discounted practical art books
from our online bookshop
75 See your work published in The Artist and win
£50 worth of vouchers to spend on Jackson’s art
materials. Simply upload your work to our
PaintersOnline gallery for the opportunity to be
chosen for our monthly Editor’s Choice Award
79 Review this month’s contributor video clips on
PaintersOnline
COMPETITIONS, NEWS & OFFERS
PRACTICALS
FEATURES
t Paint a fading rose
in watercolour step by
step with award-winning
botanical artist 
Julia Trickey
53 Portrait of a tree
Martin Taylor reveals how he brought a tree to life in oil
on canvas as he worked both on site and in the studio 
56 Powerful colours for flowers
Julie Collins concludes her series on the language of
colour with advice on how to use colour for maximum
impact 
59 Laura Knight
Glyn Macey winds up his series by inviting you to follow
him as he paints a scene in the style of Laura Knight
63 Contemporary still life
Move away from traditional subjects and compositions to
create a vibrant still life, as Marie Antoniou demonstrates 
66 Flower studies in coloured pencil
Valerie Baines recommends coloured pencil for botanical
paintings, with advice on colours and colour mixing 
and a demonstration 
for you to follow
7 The Art World
10 Your views
39 The Artist 2018 index
68 Exhibitions 
73 Books
74 Opportunities
59
TA12_p3_5_Contents_TA04p3_4_Contents 18/10/2018 11:29 Page 7
6 December 2018 www.painters-online.co.uk
A Prize for 
representational 
painting with an 
increased 
Prize fund of 
£35,000
LYNN PAINTER-
STAINERS 
PRIZE
2019
CALL FOR 
ENTRIES
lps.artopps.co.uk
Deadline: 3 December 2018, 5pm
Image: Tessa Coleman, Roof Life, Mercer Street
Lynn Painter-Stainers Prize 2018
We are looking for the best work from amateurs in 
the Leisure Painter category and from experienced and 
professional artists in The Artist category. Selected works 
from each category will be exhibited at Patchings Art Centre 
in two separate galleries, opening on the first day of the 
2019 Patchings Festival of Art, Craft & Design 
on July 11 until August 11, 2019
Over 40 individual prizes will be awarded to selected
artists in both exhibitions comprising:
n £5,000 The Artist Purchase Prize
Award. Guest judge: Lachlan Goudie
n £1,700 The Artist’s
Exhibition Awards
n £100 The Artist Highly 
Commended Award 
n £600 Batsford Awards 
n £500 Caran d’Ache/
Jakar Awards
n £500 Clairefontaine Awards
n £850 Daler-Rowney Awards 
n £500 Great Art Awards
n £2,600 Leisure Painter Award
n £100 Leisure Painter
Highly Commended Award 
n £450 Patchings Award 
n £600 Premium Art Brands 
Awards
n £300 Pro Arte Awards 
n £300 Royal Talens Awards
n £600 St Cuthberts Mill 
Awards
n £1,800 The Harbour Gallery
Award
n £400 Winston Oh Award 
n PLUS People’s Choice Awards
OVER £17,000 WORTH OF PRIZES
in partnership with Patchings Art Centre
OPEN ART
Competition
SEE NEXT MONTH’S ISSUE FOR
FULL DETAILS AND HOW TO ENTER
CALL FOR
ENTRIES
Winner of The Harbour Gallery Award 2018
John Hopkins Tenby Harbour, watercolour, 14x193⁄4in. (36x50cm)
TA12 PatchingsCall_Layout 1 15/10/2018 08:42 Page 1
p06_tadec148.indd 6 18/10/2018 10:50:36
www.painters-online.co.uk
NEWS, VIEWS, INFORMATION AND SPECIAL EVENTS IN THE ART WORLD
compiled by Jane Stroud
THE ART WORLD
p Roger Ferrin Summer Exhibition, oil,
173⁄4�231⁄2in (45�60cm)
For 12 days, from November 28 to
December 9, the Mall Galleries in
London will be buzzing with events and
activities for oil painters to coincide with
the annual Royal Institute of Oil
Painters exhibition. The highlight of its
year, the 126th exhibition features work
by established member artists as well as
work selected from open submission,
ensuring a lively show of contemporary
oil painting. We mentioned the
lunchtime tour, The Artist contributor,
Peter Graham will be leading on
November 30 (12 noon to 12.45pm) in
last month’s issue, and there’s plenty
more for you to get involved with. On
Thursday, November 29 (10am to 12
noon) dancers from the Central School
of Ballet will be in the galleries giving
visitors the opportunity to paint them in
December 2018 7
painting produced by a non-member
during the evening. Tickets for this
event are £10; £8 for spectators. Book
places at www.mallgalleries.org.uk
The 126th Royal Institute of Oil
Painters annual exhibition is at the Mall
Galleries, The Mall, Trafalgar Square,
London SW1 from November 28 to
December 9. TheArtist readers are
offered Free Entry for Two on mention
of The Artist at the gallery desk (normal
price £8). Open daily, 10am to 5pm;
closing at 1pm on final day. Telephone
020 7930 6844 or go to
www.mallgalleries.org.uk
action; then on Saturday, December 1
(10am to 5pm) the gallery will host the
popular ROI Paint Live event. This en
plein air painting competition starts in
the gallery before artists move outside
to paint wherever they choose in
locations around The Mall, before
meeting back for the competition
results. Entry to the competition is £15;
£10 for Friends of the ROI. Go to
www.mallgalleries.org.uk to book
your place. 
The annual ROI Art Event Evening is
on Tuesday, December 4 (6 to 8.30pm),
where you will have an opportunity to
paint alongside members of the ROI,
with special subjects set up around the
gallery, and the chance to win the
Winsor & Newton prize of £150 worth of
art materials awarded to the best 
TA Dec 18 Art World_Layout 1 18/10/2018 14:35 Page 9
8 December 2018 www.painters-online.co.uk
u Jovanca Stanojevic Hair 2, pencil,
13�13in (33�33cm). ‘I have always been
inclined towards less glorified aspects of
everyday life,’ she writes. ‘I have never
tried to show conventional beauty,
allowing what is usually considered
ordinary and irrelevant to take the centre
of the frame.’
t Rebecca Ritchie Colin, oil, 231⁄2�153⁄4in (60�40cm), winner
of The Artist Open Competition People’s Choice Award
The Artist
PEOPLE’S CHOICE
The Derwent Art Prize was launched
in 2012 by the internationally
renowned fine art brand, Derwent, to
‘reward excellence by showcasing the
very best 2D and 3D artworks created
in pencil, coloured pencil, water-
soluble pencils, pastels, graphite and
charcoal’. Sixty-seven shortlisted
works went on show at the Mall
Galleries, London in September with
the first prize (£6,000) being awarded
to France Bizot for her work Madame
Bovary. Second prize (£3,000) went to
Serbian artist, Jovanca Stanojevic for
her drawing Hair 2 (right) and third
prize (£1,500) went to Anna Gardiner
for her charcoal drawing Washday.
Catch the exhibition as it tours to
Trowbridge Arts (until November 10)
and the Derwent Pencil Museum in
Keswick, Cumbria (November 15 to
January 31).
Colin (left) by Rebecca Ritchie has been awarded The Artist
Open Competition People’s Choice Award winning a
subscription to The Artist worth £150. Rebecca completed a
foundation course at Maidstone School of Art in 1994 and
went on to pursue a career in television set design. Having
taken a break to start a family, she has now decided to paint
full time as her children have reached school age. 
‘I painted Colin as a gift for my brother’s 40th birthday,’ she
writes. ‘I worked from a photograph on my iPad, which I find
handy when scaling up as I can zoom in on the image to
make it the actual size I’m working on when drawing in
detail. Once I was happy with my drawing, I began layering
up tones in oil paint, starting with mid tones, then building
darker tones and finishing with highlights. The drama of the
chiaroscuro-style lighting against my brother’s familiar smile
is what appealed to me when producing this piece and I
hope his warm personality is what people take from it.’ 
See more of Rebecca’s work at www.rebeccaritchie.co.uk
DERWENT Art Prize
TA Dec 18 Art World_Layout 1 18/10/2018 14:35 Page 10
www.painters-online.co.uk 9December 2018
u Lachlan Goudie Swallows
at Eggardon, oil on board,
32�381⁄2in (81.5�98cm)
l This is Manchester at Contemporary Six Gallery, Manchester
will feature the culmination of three series of works featuring
the city by local artist, Michael Ashcroft: favourite pubs, after
the rain and Manchester from afar. This is Manchester is at
Contemporary Six, 37 Princess Street, Manchester, until
November 14; www.contemporarysix.co.uk 
l The Chandlers Ford Art Group near Eastleigh in Hampshire
is celebrating its 50th anniversary next year with a special
exhibition at Hilliers Garden Centre from January 22 to February
5. If you have any information about the origins of the group
email Colleen Cockroft at: colleen.cockcroft@gmail.com
l The Artist and Leisure Painter Art Club of the Year 2018 has
been won by the Croydon Art Society, with Hallam Art Group
and Tadworth Art Group as runners-up. Full details next month.
A year at 
the easel
p David Shepherd at work 
Writer, broadcaster and professional
artist, Lachlan Goudie, has had a
busy year, travelling widely and
becoming a father for the first time. 
A Year at the Easel at the Scottish
Gallery in Edinburgh, presents us
with an exhibition of the paintings
completed over the course of this
year, from Dorset and Rosyth, the
Cote d’Azur to California and
Morocco – as well as a series of still
lifes from his London studio. A Year
at the Easel is at The Scottish Gallery,
16 Dundas Street, Edinburgh until
November 27. Telephone 0131 558
1200; www.scottish-gallery.co.uk
p Michael Ashcroft Manchester G-Mex, oil, 16�21in (40.5�53.5cm) 
picksART
l The David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation is keen to
track down hundreds of original paintings by the
renowned conservationist and painter, David Shepherd.
The newly formed The David Shepherd Originals Circle
will provide a network for owners and hopes to organise
special events and art exhibitions in the future for circle
members. For more information go to
www.davidshepherd.org/circle
l Cover artist and The Artist contributor, Aine Divine will
lead a two-day flower painting workshop in acrylic and
mixed media on December 4 and 5 at Church Cottage
Studio on the West Cork Coast. Numbers are limited to
eight so early booking is strongly advised; email
junefairhead@gmail.com
t Demonstration flower
painting by Aine Divine 
TA Dec 18 Art World_Layout 1 18/10/2018 14:35 Page 11
Each sheet shows the result of mixing two
colours in three different concentrations:
weak, medium and strong, with the pure
colours at the extreme ends. Alternatively, I
keep one colour constant, for example
cobalt blue, and paint three rows using
three warm earths, say yellow ochre, light
red and burnt sienna. I’m always surprised
and excited at the enormous range of tones,
vivid and beautifully subtle colours I can
produce with my selection of just 16
pigments. 
This exercise is fun, relaxing and inspiring
and has taught me to see and sense colours
in terms of temperature and tone, and also
to analyse them in terms of red, yellow and
blue and mix them accurately with my
paints. Take a couple of days off and try it!
John Owen, by email
Hockney’s window
David Hockney’s first work in stained glass
was commissioned to celebrate the Queen’s
reign and reflect her love for the countryside.
Sadly, I don’t think it does any of those
things. In Hockney’s window there seems to
be no evidence of the Queen’s very long
reign. Her love for the countryside is, in a
somewhat whimsical abstract way, shown.
10 www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
Letters, emails and comments
YOUR
VIEWS
Subscribe at www.painters-online.co.uk or telephone 01580 763673
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Follow us on Twitter @artpublishing
Email theartistletters@tapc.co.uk or write to The Editor,
The Artist, 63/65 High Street, Tenterden, Kent TN30 6BD
This month’s star letter writer will receive a £50 gift card, courtesy of
GreatArt, to spend on over 50,000 available products. Gift cards can
be redeemed in-store at GreatArt Shoreditch, 41-49 Kingsland Road,
London E2 8AG, telephone 08433 571 572, and online at
www.greatart.co.uk
Student days remembered
I was fascinated by Caroline Saunders’
interview with Michael Kidd in the June
2018 issue of The Artist. Michael was one of
my contemporaries at Wimbledon School of
Art and was a lively member of a group of
students who hung out together in the late
1950s when we were all finding our feet in
the art world.
I enjoyed the article on his acrylic painting
and was interested in his very individual
style, which I last saw in an exhibition of
garden paintingswhere the topiary lent
itself ideally to his intricate and stylistic
method of expression.
Elizabeth Hunt, by email
Colour exercise
Stuck in a rut? We all go through it. What
helps me – and I do it at frequent intervals
in my search for the ‘perfect palette’ – is to
remind myself of the power slumbering in
my paintbox. I cut my usual paper into
roughly A4-sized pieces and mark out three
lines of five squares, each 5�5cm, 15
squares in all. I mark up one sheet and
photocopy the squares onto as many sheets
as I need, and these I keep in a binder for
instant reference.
Wet paintings on the go
I enjoyed reading the article ‘Seven go painting in Havana’ by Peter Brown in the
October 2018 issue. Peter didn't mention his means of transporting wet paintings.
It seems that he produced several paintings of perhaps varying sizes, so must
have had to deal with such a situation. I am sure that, like myself, anyone who
paints outside would be interested in how he overcomes this common problem.
Brian Elsey, by email
Peter Brown replies: ‘I find there is always a way. It helps if your boards have a
common dimension, as you can then use the wooden sections of the canvas grips and
team this up with using the L-shaped metal holders – so in effect you have two
holders. You can double up here by putting boards back-to-back. Sometimes I put
6�12in or 8�10in boards in my toolbox or balance them on top. I have been painting
on the streets of the UK and around the world for 25 years and no-one has ever stolen
a brush or tube of paint. I frequently leave my easel set up when I run a wet pic back to
the van, have a warming coffee or answer a call of nature. The only thing you have to
watch when leaving the easel up is gusts of wind. It blew over the other day in Bath as
I went to dump some rubbish in a bin at the end of a session of painting a rainy scene.’ 
XX STAR LETTER
The late Rowland Hilder, along with many
living artists would, I’m sure, have relished
the commission, especially the countryside
element. 
Additionally, Hockney’s window is not in
keeping with the many magnificent stained-
glass windows in Westminster Abbey.
Hockney may be a leading British artist who
in the past has done some well planned and
executed work, but in my opinion his
window is sadly lacking in the vital planning
stage. Perhaps he has been too reliant on his
iPad. Possibly at 84 I’m old-fashioned, but
you can’t beat the true and trusted pencil,
pen and paper in the planning procedure of
a piece of work. 
John K Austin, Kent
Plea for gold
As many of us are aware, quinacridone gold
(PO49) is no longer available from any
supplier, although the new quinacridone
gold is listed by various catalogues as made
up of PO48 and PY150. Should any readers
have an unused or part-used tube or pan of
the old P049 which they no longer need, I
would very much appreciate it if they could
contact me.
Mary Fennah, by email
Readers can contact Mary via The Artist. Ed.
Edward Wesson new website
Readers may be interested to learn that I
have just launched a new website, in
partnership with Steve Hall, The Artist
contributor, tutor and Wesson enthusiast,
dedicated to the life and work of the late
Edward Wesson (1910–83).
‘Ted’ was a much-loved watercolourist,
teacher and contributor to The Artist. He also
enjoyed a long and happy relationship with
Alexander Gallery, which culminated in our
publishing his autobiography My Corner of
the Field in 1982. The website* is a long-
overdue tribute to Wesson and his work. In
addition to offering a large collection of
watercolours for sale it includes a full
biography, an interesting archive section
and a collection of rare books for sale,
including copies of My Corner of the Field,
which has become a very sought-after
volume for collectors of his work. 
Peter Slade, Alexander Gallery, Bath
*www.edwardwesson.com
Follow this link to read four articles by
Edward Wesson, published in 1962, on
PaintersOnline: https://painte.rs/2RY0mYb
December letters2_Layout 1 18/10/2018 16:41 Page 1
www.painters-online.co.uk 11December 2018 11
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12
T
he spontaneous search for
inspiration is one of the very few
things that we creative people
don't let rest, even when on
holiday. In fact, it is just when we relax
and get away from our routine that we
are more likely to notice something
that stimulates the imagination. 
I travel frequently, and although that
does disrupt my work, I do try to use
that time in a constructive way. When
travelling I take the opportunity to find
fresh ideas for new works, do more
sketches from life and take photos that
I could use for my paintings. For the
last ten years I have lived in the UK,
although I have just moved back to
Italy, and during that time my travels
abroad were influenced by the light
and the environment of my
destinations, thus freeing me from the
uncertainties of the UK weather. I would
work intensely in the studio for a month
and then take a break to rest and
refresh my ideas by travelling – which
is where the inspiration for this article
came from. 
The inspiration 
I had always wanted to visit Cuba; its
bright colours, beautiful vintage cars,
decadent colonial buildings and unique
atmosphere always fascinated me.
During 2017 I spent some months
painting in Miami, from where I could
feel the vivid Cuban atmosphere. After
completing my work in Miami I took the
opportunity to visit the island, which
was just over one hour away, with my
girlfriend Ekaterina, who has travelled
extensively with me and inspired many
of my paintings over the last two years. 
One day we took a very old taxi to the
beach; in the middle of nowhere, the
engine gave up. As I got out and walked
around the car, I noticed Ekaterina
looking thoughtfully out of the rear
window. I suddenly envisioned her in a
www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
Michele Del Campo reveals how he finds fresh
ideas for paintings during his travels and the
inspiration behind a recent Cuban scene
New places, 
fresh ideas
Michele Del Campo
has a degree in fine art from the
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
and a degree in Illustration and
Printmaking from the University of
Dundee. Michele has had solo
exhibitions in Italy, Spain, UK,
Switzerland and Peru, and group
exhibitions around Europe, US and
Asia, and has won many art prizes. For
more details, see
http://micheledelcampo.com
possible painting looking very upset,
with a scowl. I took some photos as an
aide-memoire for later, when I recreated
the scene for an arranged shoot. That is
how many of my works are conceived,
not from candid shots taken by chance
on the spot. I decide on all the
elements that form the scene, almost
like a film director: the light, the
clothing, the car, the compositionand
the background. The final shoot is
staged and controlled, but not
obsessively, because I can construct the
‘perfect moment’ by putting together
the best elements of each photo.
From that moment I started to think,
elaborate, sketch and take notes for a
photo shoot. We needed a brightly
coloured car, hopefully red or pink, and
a few guys to pose. We came across the
perfect car and I asked the owner to
lend it to us for some photos. He
agreed and, for just 10 USD, allowed
me to position it in the right spot in the
sunlight and take all the photos that I
needed. Having the composition
already in mind helps, but the
improvisation and the intuition of the
moment always makes for a better
outcome. We found some suitable guys
on the spot and I asked them to
volunteer as models for the shoot,
following my directions. Once I had the
photos, the transformation of the scene
into the ‘perfect moment’ would be
done on the canvas.
I chose a 79�118in (200�300cm) linen
canvas for this painting as I wanted it to
envelop the viewer and make them feel
the space, the mood and the presence
of the characters. At that time my
studio was in Glasgow and it was big
The scene that inspired the painting
TA12p12_15_Michele_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:06 Page 12
enough to allow me to paint this kind of
format, but I did have problems getting
it out of the building, especially as I
couldn't fit it in the lift or take it down
the stairs! However, as the painting was
to be exhibited at the Galería Ansorena
in Madrid, I sent just the canvas rolled
up into a tube and eventually re-
stretched it on new stretcher bars in
the gallery. When a painting is this big,
rather than frequently moving the
heavy canvas up and down on the
easel, I find it best to use a stepladder
to move around the painting. 
www.painters-online.co.uk December 2018 13artist
TA tt
Two reference photos from the staged photo shoot
DEMONSTRATION The Breakdown
u The drawing
For such a big and important painting I
wanted to finalise my decisions about the
composition and to study the values. Notice
how the guy in jeans is leaning against the
car; I eventually decided he would be
standing and lighting a cigarette 
MATERIALS
l Winsor & Newton Artist oils:
titanium white; cadmium yellow
pale; cadmium yellow; cadmium
yellow deep; cadmium orange;
cadmium scarlet; cadmium red;
permanent carmine; permanent
mauve; cerulean; cobalt blue;
French ultramarine blue; viridian;
yellow ochre pale; Naples yellow;
burnt sienna; raw umber; burnt
umber
l White spirit
l Royal Talens Quick Drying Painting
Medium
Colours are used pure as they
come from the tube; I add a quick-
drying painting medium for oiling
out to eliminate the sinking effect
(areas of dull and greyed colours
appearing when the oil dries). To
mix the pink for the car I used
permanent carmine, cadmium red
and white, with some French
ultramarine blue and viridian in
the shadows, plus the colours of
the reflected things – the blue sky,
the grey road, the clouds, the
yellowish-grey of the door, etc
TA12p12_15_Michele_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:06 Page 13
14 www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
p STAGE ONE
I started with a simple drawing made using a
brush and raw umber thinned with white
spirit. I used a widely squared grid as a
guideline for the enlargement of the image
on the big canvas, but spaced enough so that
my drawing did not become too constrained
and precise. I paint alla prima, but I do
prepare the white canvas with washes of local
mid-tone colours thinned with white spirit
and let them dry before applying the
shadows and the lights rather thickly.
Keeping a loose brushstroke, I then painted
the elements behind the car first, the
roundness of the steering wheel and the
frame of the windscreen
p STAGE TWO
I applied a wash with the medium tones of local colours for the light and the shadow in the
skin. When it was dry I began to define all the elements that were loosely drawn. Errors of
evaluation are quite common but do render the painting more dynamic, even if it needs
some corrections at the end
DEMONSTR ATION CONTINUED
p STAGE THREE
Next I outlined the main
elements and established the
darkest and the lightest colours.
The helps me to understand, by
comparison, the range of mid-
tones that I should use
t STAGE FOUR
I painted the hair wet-in-wet,
starting with a rather dark colour
before putting in the lights. I
worked on the hand and the
face, leaving some details for
later on – my paintings always
need some retouches and
adjustments at the end
TA12p12_15_Michele_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:06 Page 14
www.painters-online.co.uk December 2018 15artist
p STAGE FIVE
Ekaterina’s top had red lines, but I painted the black first,
positioning the lights and the shadows. These shapes would
reveal to me where to put the lights and the shadows of the red
lines afterwards. For this black I used French ultramarine blue
and burnt sienna
p STAGE SIX
I didn’t have an underlying drawing for the red lines so I held my breath and
painted each line with a single stroke – that is the beauty of painting alla
prima. I used pure colours for the lights and the shadows of the reds:
cadmium scarlet or orange for the light, cadmium red deep and French
ultramarine blue with a touch of viridian for the shadows 
q FINISHED PAINTING
The Breakdown, oil on linen, 79�118in (200�300cm).
The finished portrait after the retouches; notice how I played
with the reflected colours, especially the blues, the reflections of
the sky, in the shadows
Watch a quick-time video of Michele painting a similar scene to the one shown
here: https://instagram.com/p/Bm0lz3THP0M/ 
TA12p12_15_Michele_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:06 Page 15
B
ath is a big part of my story. It’s
where I was christened ‘Pete
the street’, a nickname my
friend and dealer David
Messum really hates as it pigeonholes
me – ‘You are a painter, Pete. Full-stop.’
I quite like it though; it has the air of
the everyday and of not being too
‘arty’. It is a bit cheesy, and when I post
a landscape on Instagram I often get
the comment ‘You’ll have to call
yourself ’Pete the field’. 
I have told the story over and over
but after three years at art school and
then two more years of pursuing
modernism I came to a dead end and,
for a good year, completely gave up on
painting. When Lisa (my wife) and I
moved to Bath in the early 1990s I
walked along the Paragon, a street in
Bath, thinking ‘I’d love to draw these
streets’. This prompted me to get a
sketchbook and charcoal from a local
art shop and the rest is history. I worked
solely in charcoal for four years,
painting the streets of Bath and after
ten years I self-published my first book
16 www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
EQUIPMENT
lMabef full-size or half-box easel with
a strap. I carry paints and medium in
a tool box, although you should be
able to fit it all in the box easel.
l Artists' oil colours in yellow ochre;
raw umber; madder brown;
transparent oxide (or burnt sienna);
ultramarine blue (maybe a Prussian
blue); Payne’s grey or blue black, sap
green (naughty); viridian; terre verte;
umber green (I call this invisible
green – it practically disappears);
alizarin; cadmiums red, orange and
yellow; lemon yellow; titanium
white. I also have brilliant pink (Old
Holland).
l Range of filbert-type hog-hair
brushes – maybe a small long flat or
two, and a nylon soft round for detail
on board.
l Roberson’s glaze medium (not matt). 
l Turpentine – I now use Zest it. 
l Good supply of rags.
l Palette knife and dipper.
l Jam jar for turps.
l Boards: MDF 2mm, 6�12in, 8�10in,
10�12in, 12�16in, 8�24in. I also
may take a 20�25in canvas or two.
l Spare wing nuts for the easels –
these always go missing.
l Sketchbooks: an A4 ‘Cachet’ by Daler-
Rowney and an A3 size. These are
buff and have a smooth surface to
draw on. 
l 2H, HB and 2B pencils; putty rubber
and sharpener, for diary notes and
the odd sketch. 
M A S T E R C L A S S
Peter Brown talks about the joys of working en plein air as he captureslife on the streets of Bath, working in both charcoal and oils 
The life of Bath
p From the Ustinov, charcoal on paper, 16�18in (40.5�45.5cm)
p Green Street, charcoal on paper, 20�16in
(51�40.5cm)
Brown’s Bath, which shows a selection of
my paintings from those first ten years.
My latest book details the next ten
years of painting the city: Bath Paintings
by Peter Brown. It’s great to do the
books – to get your paintings in one
place, to select and to review your work
over a ten-year period – but they are a
by-product; it’s all about the painting
and really all about making the paintings
rather than the finished work. I say this
because when it comes to it, I am the
worst judge of which paintings people
do or don’t like. All I can do is ignore
this and just keep making and learning.
Charcoal drawing
Working in charcoal is perfect for Bath.
The stone is fairly uniform so local
colour does not mess with the tone of
light falling on the stone. I work quickly
TA12p16_19_Masterclass_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:09 Page 16
www.painters-online.co.uk December 2018 17artist
p Buskers, Morning Meeting, The Abbey, oil
on canvas, 25�20in (63.5�51cm)
and now only on hot dry days because
charcoal tends to absorb any
atmospheric moisture and can become
almost greasy or waxy, which is hard to
work with. I cover the page in charcoal
with the side of a stick so it attracts the
heat in the sun and also as a sort of
mid-tone to work from. 
I do some rough working out of where
things are going to be, then I add darks
and lights with charcoal, smudging and
adjusting tones with the sides and
palms of my hands and finger tips, with
pieces of toilet paper and, of course, a
hot sticky putty rubber. With the sun
behind you, which is mainly the way I
seem to work in charcoal, as any plein-air
painter will tell you, you get two or
maybe three hours. Any longer and you
are either making it up or undoing what
you started. I don’t fix the drawings as it
makes the darks get a little lighter and
the lights a little darker, closing the
tone and losing crispness. I hang the
drawings around the studio until I can
get them photographed, then under
glass. I remember giving my framer a
pastel to frame and was horrified as she
gave it four hard bangs on the
workbench to remove any free pastel
likely to dirty the mount. I saw the
headlight of a car fall off. Charcoal stays
put rather better, I find.
Oil painting
I was quite happy to try to get as good
as I possibly could at charcoal drawing
and did not feel the need to hit the
oils. Eventually though I was seduced
by its possibilities – you can paint with
oil in sun, rain, snow and ice. I have
learned over the years to try to avoid
TA12p16_19_Masterclass_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:09 Page 17
18
verbalising colour. What I mean by this
is trying not to say to myself ‘grass:
grass is green, where is my green?’. It’s
very hard not to do this. I have a new
way of controlling it. I use what I call
‘invisible green’, which is very weak
green umber. You see green on the
palette but it seems to add very little
green to the painting once applied. It’s
better sometimes than that naughty
sap green I keep using. The trick is
simply to see colour and replicate it
without too much deliberation. 
My colours are laid out on my Mabef
easel palette but are mixed on another
small palette on my arm. I use
Roberson’s Glaze Medium so the paint
dries faster and I can paint over without
it all going muddy. On the streets I work
on 2mm MDF boards from 8�10in up to
12�16in. For anything larger I move to
canvas – a medium-weave Belgium
linen on 2¼in raised lip stretchers,
which come in wonderful packages from
Bird and Davies. I have worked bigger
but 30�35in is really the largest I am
comfortable with when working on site. 
I give them all a turpsy mid-tone wash
of what’s left on the palette at the end
of the session. If I am painting on
canvas I usually take two of the same
size – one goes behind to block any
sun coming through the back of the
canvas. I also take small boards in case
I change my mind or see something
juicy I can sketch. It can be a pain
getting your kit on site or to have to
return to the car to get something you
forgot – particularly as the light is
shifting.
People, movement and cars
The whole point of painting en plein air
is to be amongst the movement, the
www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
p 10.30am to Midday, Gay Street, oil on canvas, 20�16in (51�40.4in)
t Snow, Bottom of Lansdown Road, January,
oil on canvas, 20�25in (51�63.5cm)
TA12p16_19_Masterclass_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:09 Page 18
noise, the smell, the people, the
weather – so you have to embrace it
and use a little patience. Be prepared
to wait for a similar car to pass at the
same spot or wait for that annoying
delivery driver parked in the way to
move off. People walking towards you
generally are in the same pose every
other step so you get a good go there,
but walking across you – they are a
nightmare. 
Forget local colour – you don’t have
time. Sketch with a fluid loaded brush,
mark where things are (arms, shoulders,
hips’ heads) and try to remember what
your marks are referring to. Some
figures work, most don’t so get rid of
them. Painting a mass of people is
good, simply because you cannot do it
by painting 30 individuals. You have to
paint the mass: what general shape and
colour is it, are there accents, specks of
light or colour? As I keep saying to
myself: ‘What does it look like, Pete?’.
I’ve never really cracked any of this but
it’s what I aim for. I also try and make
sure I don’t try and answer anything I
did not see. Hopefully I’ve answered
enough in the rest of the figure for the
viewer to fill in. 
The public
Frankly, I’d get really upset if I was
ignored. People say funny things,
interesting things and sometimes
helpful things. Usually they say positive
things, negative comments are rare.
People seem genuinely surprised to
www.painters-online.co.uk December 2018 19artist
Peter Brown
is president of the New English Art Club, an
honorary member of the Royal Society of British
Artists, a member of the Royal Institute of Oil
Painters, the Pastel Society and the Bath Society
of Artists. His next solo exhibition, ‘East Anglia’ is
at Messums, 28 Cork Street, London W1 from May
8 to 31, 2019. Pete’s latest book, Bath Paintings,
was published on October 31. For more details
see www.petethestreet.com.
see paintings happen in situ and they
like it. Having said that I can be a bit
grumpy sometimes because I am trying
to concentrate. 
A couple of days ago my nose was
four inches from the canvas as I tried to
delicately brush a mast on a boat when
‘That’s really good!’ suddenly boomed
in my ear. I had no idea what happened
to the mast, the boat or the canvas as I
peeled myself from the ground, three
yards away, trying to restart my heart. It
was hard to rebuke him though – he
was being nice, after all.
Paint alongside Pete on a The Artist holiday to
Istanbul from April 26 to May 6, 2019! For full
details, see www.painters-online.co.uk/courses-
holidays/reader-holidaysp 6.30am, From Walcot Parade, oil on board, 10�12in (25.5�30.5cm)
p Morning Light on the Snow, Golf Course,
January 2010, oil on canvas, 12�36in
(30.5�91.5cm)
TA
Be inspired by this video of Pete as he paints en plein
air in oils: https://painte.rs/2pBbixN
TA12p16_19_Masterclass_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:09 Page 19
20
will be, though the addition�of the
medium brings light into the surface
and creates a feeling of depth. 
When creating a glaze, think about
proportions and test how your glaze
will look from wet to dry. The more
medium you use, the whiter the wet
glaze will be. In thin films�this will not
be as apparent, but if you are applying
a thick glaze layer, there will be a
significant change as the medium
clarifies and the colour asserts itself. 
It’s good to have an understanding of
colour theory so that you don’t muddy
your work, but it’s more important when
glazing to understand the type of
pigmentyou are using and its relative
coverage. Semi-opaque and opaque
colours become more opaque (to
varying degrees) as you build up layers
of glazes. If you’re using very opaque
colours, apply them in very diluted
mixtures to avoid masking the
underlying layer. 
Glazes of colour build gradually,
giving you more control. One thick layer
of colour, even if it’s very saturated, will
not have the luminosity of the same
colour built up in glaze layers, which
pull in the light and increase visual
depth. 
Additives such as retarder and retarder
gel can be used to dual purpose in a
glaze. When you are glazing a large area
and need to keep a quantity of glaze
wet, you can add retarder (up to 15 per
cent of the total volume) to the
medium-paint mixture to increase the
flow and keep the glaze from drying too
quickly. The extended drying time can
also make the brushstrokes in the paint
film less prominent and visible.
www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
Use acrylic mediums to produce glazes that you
can layer for rich depth and subtle transitions in your
acrylic paintings, says Rhéni Tauchid. With demonstrations
by Connie Morris and Lorena Kloosterboer
Glazing with acrylics
P
rofessional-grade acrylic paint is
really, really saturated. Used full
strength, its bright undertones
are obscured by the sheer
intensity of the colour. Mediums draw
out the colour’s nuances – the bright
juiciness of its essence. The light they
bring ramps up the power of any colour.
The transparent or translucent colour of
a glaze has a seductive quality, urging
us to look deeper into a composition,
hunting for the elusive colour veils laid
down layer over layer. The surface
appearance of a painting rich with
transparent layers carries a life and
depth that is not present in an opaque
application. 
Thin mediums can be tinted with
colour in any proportion to create
glazes. The more medium, the more
transparent and desaturated the colour
p Rhéni Tauchid Behind the Falls, 2014, acrylic and charcoal on
canvas, 40�60in (102�152cm). Private collection, Kingston,
Ontario, Canada. 
A half-inch-thick layer of gloss-gel glazes intensifies the aquatic
tones in the top half of this painting. Below it is a band of matt gel
with text texture scratched into it with a skewer. Along the bottom,
a band of silky smooth self-levelling gel draws the viewer into its
depths. There are 10 to 12 individual glaze layers in this painting
t Gel glaze
q Ribbons of
coloured glazes
TA
TA12p20_23_Glazing_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:11 Page 20
www.painters-online.co.uk December 2018 21artist
p STAGE THREE
To further define the pears’ forms, she added more layers
of transparent colour with glazing medium, continuing
to create contrasts of lights and darks (shadows). She
toned down the colours by using a very small amount of
transparent brown and glazing medium, giving the
background a soft patina
Connie Morris guides you
through the multilayered
glazing process with this still
life of pears
p STAGE ONE
Morris locked in the composition with loosely applied
colour tints using liquid acrylic colours mixed with
glazing medium
u STAGE TWO
Still using glazing medium, she
started building up the surface
with both transparent and
opaque colour overlays. Morris
painted the background with
white to open it up and to
create a reflective ground for
subsequent layers of colour.
Then she began adding darker
colours to create form in the
pears
p STAGE FOUR
Finally, Morris blended and softened the colour shifts. She darkened the
shadows to enhance the forms of the pears. She finished by adding vibrant,
delineating red strokes and giving the painting a final clear coat of untinted
glazing medium
DEMONSTRATION Glazing
TA12p20_23_Glazing_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:11 Page 21
22
GLAZ ING W I TH ACRYL I C S
www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
For her painting Twice As Much,
Lorena Kloosterboer built up
layers of transparent colour over a
grisaille underpainting
u STAGE ONE
Tracing her outline onto a
prepared panel,
Kloosterboer then covered
the objects with a highly
diluted wash of Payne’s grey,
gloss medium and water,
leaving the background
white. Continuing with
Payne’s grey, she added
darker lines, areas and cast
shadows to build value
intensity
p STAGE TWO
She outlined the shapes and deepened the
darker areas with Payne’s grey. Grisaille
underpaintings like this establish all the
values and provide a great base over which to
glaze colours
t STAGE THREE
She added colour slowly,
building up transparent
layers and assessing
intensity and chroma as each
layer dried. Working with
transparent colours helps
you to see the composition’s
lines vaguely, using them as
guides. Kloosterboer kept
the background clean,
concealing little smudges
with titanium white
u STAGE FOUR
Kloosterboer added more glaze layers to
intensify colours, suspending pigments in
clear gloss medium to create wonderful jewel
tones
TIP
When glazing, imagine you’re layering
stained glass – building depth and
chroma. If one piece of glass is frosted,
it will obscure what is underneath. Be
mindful of the transparency of your
mediums when layering. Gloss
medium will give you the clearest
glaze layers,while matt medium will
render glazes more translucent. Even if
you prefer a matt finish, for increased
clarity between layers it is prudent to
use gloss mediums until the final layer
DEMONSTRATION Transparent layers
TA12p20_23_Glazing_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:11 Page 22
www.painters-online.co.uk December 2018 23artist
p FINISHED PAINTING
Lorena Kloosterboer Twice as Much, acrylic on gessoed panel, 24�24in (61�61cm)
u STAGE FIVE
Small details were
added with titanium
white to suggest
highlights and
distortions in the glass.
To imply three-
dimensionality,
shadows were added
around the gumballs; a
Payne’s grey glaze
added to the coffee pot
gave it a tarnished look
This extract is taken from Acrylic
Painting Mediums and Methods: A
Contemporary Guide to Materials,
Techniques and Applications by
Rhéni Tauchid, published by Monacelli
Studio, ISBN 9781580934930.
PRACTICAL
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24 www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
T
o capture a misty, ethereal light,
it is imperative to use lots of
water in a wet-into-wet
technique. The trick is to keep
your wash area wet so that you have
the time to blend and adjust shapes
without rushing. Use good-quality
cotton paper such as Saunders
Waterford or Arches, as these types will
absorb water and stay wet for a
reasonable amount of time. Keep
checking the sheen on the painting to
ensure it is not drying too fast or that
you have wet the surface unevenly. A
matt look indicates it is too dry and a
deep glossy appearance with puddles
should tell you it is a little too wet. Try
to aim for an even satin sheen when
seen against the light. If your wash
begins turning matt before you have
finished, give it a little spray with a
water spray to bring the sheen back up
to a workable wetness.
t PART ONE
With a soft 6B pencil, I drew out
the scene, quite roughly, on a
piece of Saunders Waterford
140lb (300gsm) Rough paper,
indicating the position of the
trees with simple lines. To set
the lightest values in the picture
and an undercoat elsewhere, 
I applied a loose, varied wash of
cobalt blue, yellow ochre and
burnt sienna using lots of water
and allowing paint to run and
fuse freely. I used a size 6
squirrel mop brush to apply the
paint quickly and effectively. 
No great amount of accuracy
was needed here, except to
make sure I hit the colour and
strength of the lightest values
that were going to remain
throughout the painting
PART TWO ABOVE AND ABOVE RIGHT
When the starting wash had dried I used a
size 4 squirrel mop brush to begin building
up the mass of trees with various mixtures of
sap green, ultramarine, burnt sienna and
brown madder. I used lots of water to make
Paul Talbot-Greaves
teaches watercolour and acrylic painting
in workshops and demonstrations to art
societies throughoutthe Midlands and
the north of England. He can be
contacted by email: information@talbot-
greaves.co.uk or through his website: 
www.talbot-greaves.co.uk
November mist
Paul Talbot-Greaves demonstrates how to use
the wet-into-wet technique to recreate a misty
woodland scene in watercolour
paint run and infuse atmosphere, but I also
made the wash stronger in value lower down.
Without allowing the painting to dry fully, 
I continued into the foreground with burnt
sienna, yellow ochre and brown madder,
cutting out the shape of the track and on the
left, the highlights of the wall top. For the
hint of grass on the left I simply mixed sap
green with a little cadmium yellow. It is
interesting to note that all of the painting
was covered except for the lightest elements
of sky, wall tops, track and light through trees
TA
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p u PART THREE -
FINISHED PAINTING
November Mist, watercolour on Saunders
Waterford 140lb (300gsm) Rough, 11�15in
(28�38cm).
To create distance in the trees I made some of
the nearer ones stronger using sap green,
ultramarine and brown madder, once again in
various mixes. I used the darkest value in the
shadow areas, mixing cobalt blue and brown
madder with just a little water for the shades
underneath the right-hand trees. 
I continued into the left-hand side using the
same mix. As I painted I sprayed areas with
water here and there and occasionally mixed
the shapes up with a wet brush. 
I continued, painting the shadows on the
right and adding rich darks using thick
ultramarine and brown madder applied to
parts of the wall, posts and some tree trunks.
I didn’t allow for any drying stages here.
Instead, the painting was kept flowing with
some areas dry and some remaining damp.
Finally, I added the post highlights with neat
Naples yellow and the wire with white
gouache
 
l Saunders Waterford Rough paper
l Squirrel mop brushes, size 4 and/or 6
l Watercolour tubes: cobalt blue, yellow
ochre, burnt sienna, sap green,
ultramarine, brown madder, cadmium
yellow, Naples yellow, white gouache
l Spray bottle
Paint your own misty woodland
You might wish to follow the
methods I used in your own
painting. Use the photo provided,
left, as your source material along
with my suggestion of materials:
Submit your finished painting to
PaintersOnline by emailing a copy, no
larger than 2MB, to dawn@tapc.co.uk
with Misty Woodland in the subject
line, by January 18 2019.
Detail
Watch Paul paint a riverside scene in watercolour in this quick-time video: https://painte.rs/2pBbixN
TA12p24_25_PTG_Layout 1 15/10/2018 13:09 Page 25
26
underpainting, to achieve a sort of
order in the chaos. As Francis Bacon
put it: ‘I like to have order in my work,
but for it to have come about through
chaos’.
I love it all. It’s an exercise in being
curious to what’s there. Puts me in mind
of a quotation from the guru Mooji:
‘When we are curious we create, when
we are desperate we discover’. I was
more than desperate whilst painting for
this article, with Jim the photographer
capturing every stage. You can decide
whether I discovered something. 
More than anything we want to look
with fresh eyes, to be willing to risk
losing it all, and rather than opt for a safe
and easy picture, to seek the truth of
what’s there, whatever that means to you.
I hope you feel inspired to tackle your
own flower painting in oil over acrylic. 
All the very best with it and above all,
remember to relax, soften and breathe,
this is how we engage the flow!
www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
Follow Aine Divine as she captures a ‘dancing flock’
of cyclamen flowers in oil over acrylic
Put some life into
your still life
I
love to use a combination of oil
paint over acrylic. The acrylic
appeals to me for the freedom of
expression it allows – large
sweeping brushstrokes made from the
shoulder characterise the early phase
of the painting, when I’m seeking to
establish the main shapes and colours.
I gather the energy of the grouping so it
settles in the boundaries of the page. 
In simple terms the oil layer tends to
pull together the wildness of the
DEMONSTRATION Cyclamen in Orange Vase
I’ve started with a photo from the end of
the process because I want to illustrate
three vital points:
l Firstly, be fully attentive to the subject:
really study the shape of the part you want to
convey. The position of the easel plays a big
part in this. You want to be able to see the
plant and paper by only moving your eyes, so
arrange your easel with care and steady
yourself in the same position each time you
go to look at the still life. 
l This second point is a real passion of mine,
and relates to the holistic nature of this
creative act: make sure you engage the
physical body. Feel an aliveness coming up
through your feet, energising you. Take a few
steps back and forth every so often, stay
alive! Keep a radar up for any tension and
shake it off. I love to paint barefoot now, and
listen to music as I work to really get into the
rhythm of it. Moving dissipates any fear
energy as well, so use it!
l Lastly make sure there’s one direct source
of light on your subject, you want to see
clearly and chisel out the shapes. Regularly
peer through half-closed eyes so you pick out
the necessary darks and lights. In identifying
these you make the forms being painted
appear convincing.
TA
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www.painters-online.co.uk
PRACTICAL
December 2018 27artist
tt
u STAGE ONE 
I applied a cerulean blue background with
2in household brush. I then painted the
general shape of the table top and vase using
a combination of brush and rag in vigorous
moves, occasionally splashing from the
shoulder, ‘losing it’ (I call it my ‘**** it move’,
an essential part of the process). Bring
yourself to this, move from within, breathe,
engage the core!
p STAGE TWO
Continuing to find my way, I located the dark leaf
covering the vase and swiped on a few of the cadmium
red flower shapes. The direction of the stroke is more
important here than precise edges – edges can be
located later. For now you are concerned with capturing a
dynamic power in each move. The mark begins and ends
with the page. Remember, be physical with this!
p STAGE THREE
I applied more red shapes to identify the position of the floating flowers.
Then, with Hooker’s green and alizarin crimson I established the dark
group of leaves fairly intuitively. To clarify the shape I used a wet cloth to
wipe away – the cerulean blue paint was still a bit wet and wiped away
to leave a pleasing white glow behind the leaves. Turning the board
upside down I splashed some water on the red flowers and allowed the
water to drag the colour upwards for a while. It’s good medicine to see
your painting on its head, it takes the heat off!
t STAGE FOUR
I used a ragged old 1in flat brush in a cross-hatch motion to capture the
bulk of the leaf shapes, looking for the general shape of dark green
rather than individual leaves. When I do this I’m relating the volume of
leaf colour to the volume of flower colour, discerning which extends
further to the left and right. I also take note of the shape of the space
between the flowers and leaves. Still operating with vigour, I wanted the
space within which the flowers sit to feel alive and contain movement
TA12p26_29_Aine_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:13 Page 27
28
D E M O N S T R AT I O N CONTINUED
www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
p STAGE FIVE
Deepening the darks in the leaves by adding ultramarine blue to
them, I took note of the shape they made at the edge, the
appealing downward slant. I added more tone to the tabletop
with alizarin crimson. Studying the edge took consideration; to
dissipate the tension of this, I splashed the watered-down
alizarin on the cerulean blue space surrounding the flowers. This
also served to bring the whole painting up together, to keep it
alive and moving
p STAGE SIX
Findingthe lower half off the table top a distraction I covered it with white
card, which allowed me to see what to do next. I decided it was time to
switch to oil – I wanted to model the edges and brighten the background. I
scooped up the paint in a ridge along the edge of a 1/4in flat brush, then
turned it to lay it down cleanly, the brush handle almost parallel to the
page, whilst studying the shapes between the leaves with great care. At the
same time I stuck cadmium orange collage paper on the vase, to gauge the
relationship of tones before committing to the brightness of it all over the
vase. Orange and blue complement each other beautifully
p STAGE SEVEN
Dispersing the blue oil paint, a mix of cerulean blue, lemon
yellow and titanium white, up to the flower, the stems were
suggested. I saw the patches of blue as stepping stones through
the painting. The opaque paint is strong in contrast to the
thinner acrylic layer, and exciting to see. I applied a mix of
cadmium red, alizarin crimson and titanium white to the light
table top, thickly outlining the cast shadow of the vase, and so
adding depth and solidity
q STAGE EIGHT
Many more ‘stepping stones’ were added; the blue also served to outline
the stems on the left, and the shape made by the underside of the flowers.
It felt good to have achieved clarity here. I used cadmium orange in places
on the vase to strengthen it, and the stems on the light side were painted
with a buttery mix of cadmium red, lemon yellow and white. I was glad the
leaves are dramatically dark as they serve as a foil for the chiselled shards
of lighter oil.
The contrast
of thickly and
thinly painted
stems also
appealed. You
need to stay
interested and
inspired by
the surface
you’re
painting on,
so don’t lose
that edge –
don’t become
too pleased
with yourself;
you might
become safe,
or worse,
bored!!
TA12p26_29_Aine_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:13 Page 28
www.painters-online.co.uk
PRACTICAL
December 2018 29artist
Aine Devine
studied fine art at Crawford College of
Art and Design, Cork. She has exhibited
widely and won awards for her work.
Aine teaches regular workshops, gives
demonstrations and private tuition. For
more information, see
www.ainedivinepaintings.co.uk
All photographs for this article were taken by
Jim Mackintosh 
t STAGE NINE
I enjoyed modelling the flower shapes with various combinations of cadmium
red, alizarin crimson and titanium white. I love the shapes of the flowers that
extend darkly into the space above, as though seeking to stretch further upward.
I introduced light, mostly white, paint to the surfaces of the leaves to the right -–
at one point these were luminous and far brighter than the blue wall behind. It’s
always a good idea to notice contrast of tones at the edges. For example, in some
areas the leaves read as being far darker than the background
u FINISHED PAINTING
Cyclamen in Orange Vase, oil over acrylic,
22�153⁄4in (56�40cm).
I revisited the painting months later, mostly
because the drooping leaf was annoying me.
I ended up getting trigger-happy and
changing multiple things, most notably the
table from round to square-edged. I’m not
sure it’s an improvement. As they say, a
painting is never finished, it simply stops in
interesting places
Watch Aine painting cyclamen leaves, and the
spaces between, in oil, by following this link:
https://painte.rs/2pBbixN
TA12p26_29_Aine_Layout 1 18/10/2018 10:13 Page 29
Peter Burgess explains how aerial perspective works and offers some
suggestions for depicting distance and atmosphere in your work
Aerial perspective
30
A
erial perspective can be
defined as being the depiction
of distance by means of
changes of tone, hue and
colour saturation. Stated broadly, tones
will become fainter and hues will tend
more towards blue-violet and grey as
they get further away. Most outdoor
subjects include greater or lesser
degrees of aerial distance and one of
the challenges for an artist is to decide
how to depict that. As styles of painting
vary, for this article I have assumed that
the intention is to achieve a result
based in some way on perception. 
Physics 
The laws of physics demonstrate that
light is composed of elements of
www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
different wavelengths. Violet light has
the shortest wavelength; red has the
longest. Moisture and particles of dust
in the atmosphere cause light to
scatter. Violet light, which has short
wavelengths, gets scattered the most. It
is blue-violet rather than red-violet,
except perhaps in some conditions of
sunset or sunrise, when the light can
appear reddish. The result is that
distant light can take on a subtle hue
that has a combination of ingredients.
Look again at any distant mountains
and hills – that bluishness is not a pure
blue, it’s closer to a pale grey-blue-
violet. We know that white light is
composed of all the colours of the
spectrum. The addition of red, yellow
and green to the mixture turns the
result greyish. Additionally, the
scattering of light has the effect of
lightening deep tones and half tones.
Paradoxically, pure whites and very
light tones will be deepened with the
addition of that pale grey-blue-violet
light. 
The degree of aerial perspective will
depend largely on the weather. On a
bright day it will be influenced by the
position of the sun in relation to the
subject. On a dull day the effect might
well be increased, giving greyer hues,
and a blurring of detail and edges. In
all conditions there will be increasingly
less detail visible in the distance.
Details can be suggested rather than
stated exactly – the mind’s eye fills in
the missing detail. 
Local colour
One way of considering aerial
perspective is to think about its
opposite: local colour. Imagine an
object with a local colour of cadmium
red; to depict this at a close distance
we would have to add white to the red
to portray the effect of light falling on it.
This is the effect of aerial perspective
at its most basic. As the distance of the
object increases, more white will
usually need to be added. 
An interesting problem can arise as it
becomes more distant. Adding more
Hills near Bologna
This photograph shows the phenomenon of aerial perspective. Beyond the hill in the middle
distance there is a gap in space of a mile or two and consequently a sudden lightening of tone.
The green hues become closer to a blue-violet, and are also greyer. There is a sequence of
successive lines of hills and valleys where the aerial perspective gradually increases. Looking at
the photograph upside down can help to see this more clearly
Peter Burgess
studied at Wimbledon School of Art
and the Royal Academy Schools. 
He has exhibited in many solo and
group exhibitions in the UK and has
work in collections in Britain, Europe
and the USA. 
www.peterburgesspaintings.co.uk
TA12p30_33_PeterFITS_Layout 1 15/10/2018 13:17 Page 30
www.painters-online.co.uk December 2018 31artist
and more white to our cadmium red
object will tend to turn it into a pink,
which might look unconvincing. This is
partly because adding white to a colour
makes it turn towards the violet part of
the colour spectrum. One possible
solution is to turn the red more towards
the yellow part of the spectrum.
Alternatively cadmium scarlet, or even
cadmium orange could be substituted
for cadmium red. These challenges are
part of the joy of painting! 
Tone and hue 
Adding white to colour mixtures is very
much the method of painting in oils or
acrylics. Watercolourists usually lighten
their tones by adding water. They tend
to start with the lightest, most distant
tones, and build up tonal depth as they
work towards the foreground. Some
Peter’s top tips for depicting aerial perspective
l Using direct observation of the landscape, familiarise yourself with the differences
in tone and hue that can be seen in the foreground, middle ground and
background.
l If painting from photographs, remember the value of also studying nature from
direct observation. Make written notes, or try to memorisethe colours you are
seeing.
l Be aware of how the weather and the position of the sun can change distant
appearances. 
l If using oils or acrylics, use plenty of white to lighten distant tones.
l Watercolourists will need to add more water to lighten washes.
l Colours will often need to be closer to a greyish blue-violet.
l Try adding complementary colours to a mixture, in order to create more muted
hues which are characteristic of aerial perspective. 
l Be wary of the use of black if trying to create distant greys. Try blue black or
Payne’s grey instead, added to plenty of white, to get a cooler-looking result.
l Try to ‘feather’ edges: distant hills, buildings and trees will tend to have softer
edges.
watercolourists use Chinese white or
white gouache. It is this addition of
white, or lightening of tone, which is
perhaps the most important aspect of
achieving the look of aerial perspective.
The precise change of colour will be
something that varies more between
individual painters. 
One aspect of the alteration of hue is
the ‘greying’ or loss of saturation that
can be observed. Adding pure black
can be a dangerous way to achieve this,
potentially leading to crudity of colour.
Many of the Impressionists did not
p Alpe della Luna, watercolour, 5�61⁄2in
(12.7�16.6cm). 
Here the transparent washes show the
reduction in saturation of hues in the
distance, and their inclination more to the
blue-violet part of the spectrum. The paler
tones were achieved by adding more water,
not white. Pigments used were lemon yellow,
raw umber, opaque oxide of chromium and
ultramarine. A tiny quantity of alizarin
crimson was added to ultramarine for the
most distant set of hills. Ultramarine is,
technically speaking, a reddish shade of blue,
therefore it already has a slightly violet tinge
incorporate black in their palettes
(although Manet did). One alternative
is to add the complementary to the
base colour. For example, try adding
red to the basic blue and yellow (or
green) used for distant trees – plus of
course white. This will lead to a
reduced saturation in the hue. 
It can be dangerous to use pure
greens in a landscape because they will
tend to lack that quality of suggesting
space and air. Spatially they might tend
to come forward rather than recede. I
have been using the generic colour
TA12p30_33_PeterFITS_Layout 1 15/10/2018 13:17 Page 12
32
terms yellow, red, blue, green and purple. To
be more specific one suggested palette for
landscape could be lemon yellow, cadmium
yellow, yellow ochre, opaque oxide of
chromium, ultramarine, light red and raw
umber. However I recognise that painters
tend to have different ideas about which
pigments to use. Experimentation is the key
to finding out what suits you.
www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
p Ponte di San Barnaba, oil on panel, 83⁄4�7in (22�18cm).
In this scene the strong linear perspective required a matching use of aerial
perspective to help define space. In the foreground and middle distance, tones and
colours are relatively bright, but as the buildings become progressively further
away, more and more white has been added. For the shadows of the distant
buildings I used Winsor & Newton blue black. Using black might sound dangerous
when trying to depict distance, but there is a proportion of French ultramarine in
this paint which, with the added white, gives it more air and space. Details were
omitted and edges softened, giving a slightly hazy effect
TA12p30_33_PeterFITS_Layout 1 15/10/2018 13:17 Page 13
Analytical observation
It is always helpful to look at nature at
first hand to analyse the colours we are
seeing. It can also be helpful to half
close the eyes or squint at what we are
looking at, which can help to filter out
distracting details, so that the motif is
reduced to its basic elements. Making
written notes can help the process of
analysis, such as suggestions of
pigments or mixtures that will be
employed. When looking at a
photograph in the studio, it is
sometimes helpful to look at it upside
down – this can make the differences of
colour more visible.
An important aspect of landscape
painting is the sky. Strictly speaking all
parts of a pure clear sky could be said
to be an equal distance away from the
spectator, so whether any of it is
subject to aerial perspective could be
open to debate. Certainly tones and
colours will tend to change at the
horizon, often becoming lighter, but not
always and, because of atmospheric
conditions, usually becoming less
saturated. Clouds can be affected by
aerial perspective as they become
more distant. The most important thing
for the artist is observation, because
there is so much variation and subtlety
in the sky, dependent on weather
conditions and the time of day. A look
at some of John Constable’s many cloud
studies can be inspiring in respect of
this issue.
The world is full of fascinating visual
phenomena, and the first rule for the
artist is simply to look as closely as
possible – it is a very enjoyable
pursuit!
www.painters-online.co.uk December 2018 33artist
u Aberystwyth (detail), oil on panel,
141⁄2�18in (37�45.5cm). 
I wanted to achieve a milky, misty quality of
air and distance. The pigment used for both
sea and sky is indanthrene, with a large
proportion of titanium white. To help the
effect of aerial perspective, the green
starboard pillar and light is much lighter in
tone than the yellow and black cardinal post
in the foreground
u Ponte di San Barnaba, detail, second
version.
As a demonstration for this article, I painted
the most distant part of the motif to show the
effect if aerial perspective is not deployed.
There is more detail and edges are sharper. To
avoid total crudity some white was added to
the mixtures. There is a sense of very strong
sunshine; however there is also a reduction in
the feeling of space and atmosphere
TA
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34 www.painters-online.co.ukDecember 2018artist
Sally Barton reveals how she approaches
commissions to paint people’s houses and make an
income from her work
Pictures 
of home
P
ainting a portrait of someone’s
home is quite a responsibility –
this is a place with a lot of
emotions attached and, in the
four years since I launched my house
portrait website, I’ve always kept this
very much in mind. It’s the personal
element that makes these commissions
very different from commercial ones
and can make them more rewarding. 
Working method
Although each house portrait presents
different challenges, they broadly
contain the same elements. I begin with
thumbnail sketches to work out the
composition, and much will depend on
the photograph(s) supplied as
reference. A full-size rough in pencil is
then emailed to the customer, who can
request changes at this stage. Once
approved, I transfer the main lines of
the rough to watercolour paper using
Tracedown paper. Too many details can
constrain the way the portrait is
painted, and this risks losing a freedom
of brushstroke that is important if the
portrait is to have life as a painting. 
It’s important to work over the whole
painting at all times, whatever stage
you’re at, and not become fixated with
a particular area, as this may lead to
the painting becoming overworked in
one area and out of balance with the
rest. Details are kept to a minimum.
Much of the painting is in the form of
washes and broad-brush application,
some of which won’t be worked over at
all during later stages but will remain as
just a single layer of colour/wash, such
as the suggestion of roof tiles. When
adding the final darker tones take care
not to destroy the freshness of the
painting by doing too much. You can lift
watercolour paint off the paper with a
damp brush to remedy a mistake, but if
you do this beyond a certain point
you’re left with an area of dull and
muddy paint.
At this point it’s important to keep
walking away from the painting, and
turn it upside down, too, as it helps you
to judge if the painting works as a
composition. I will

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