11 New Strategic Brand Management by Philip Kotler   4th Edition
577 pág.

11 New Strategic Brand Management by Philip Kotler 4th Edition


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of brand equity 438; The factors of decline 439; Distribution factors 442;
When the brand becomes generic 443; Preventing the brand from ageing 443;
Rejuvenating a brand 445; Growing older but not ageing 450
17. Managing global brands 455
The latest on globalisation 456; Patterns of brand globalisation 459; Why globalise? 461;
The benefits of a global image 466; Conditions favouring global brands 468;
The excess of globalisation 470; Barriers to globalisation 471; 
Coping with local diversity 473; Building the brand in emerging countries 478; 
Naming problems 479; Achieving the delicate local\u2013global balance 480;
Being perceived as local: the new ideal of global brands? 483;
Local brands can strike back 485; The process of brand globalisation 487;
Globalising communications: processes and problems 495;
Making local brands converge 498
Part Four: Brand valuation 501
18. Financial valuation and accounting for brands 503
Accounting for brands: the debate 504; What is financial brand equity? 507;
Evaluating brand valuation methods 513; The nine steps to brand valuation 525;
The evaluation of complex cases 528;
What about the brand values published annually in the press? 529
Bibliography 531
Index 545
viii CONTENTS
Figures
1.1 The brand system 12
1.2 The levers of brand profitability 25
1.3 Branding and sales 26
2.1 The brand system 34
2.2 The cycle of brand management 36
2.3 The product and the brand 41
2.4 Product line overlap among brands 42
2.5 Brands give innovations meaning and purpose 43
3.1 The two models of brand building through time 56
4.1 Relative positioning of the different distributors\u2019 brands 68
5.1 The pyramid brand and business model in the luxury market 98
5.2 The constellation model of luxury brands 100
5.3 History-based and story-based approaches to luxury 101
5.4 How brands impact on medical prescription 112
6.1 Limits of traditional marketing 140
6.2 From brand values to brand value 143
6.3 Brand equity 144
6.4 The extension of brand management 162
7.1 Identity and image 174
7.2 Positioning a brand 176
7.3 The McDonald\u2019s positioning ladder 180
7.4 Brand identity prism 183
7.5 Sample brand identity prisms 188
7.6 Example of brand platform: Jack Daniel\u2019s 199
8.1 Transfer of company identity to brand identity when company and brand
names coincide 206
8.2 From brand platform to activation 210
IX
8.3 Consumer empowerment 217
9.1 Increasing volume per capita 221
9.2 Segmenting by situation 222
9.3 Brands\u2019 dual management process 229
9.4 A disruptive value curve: Formule 1 hotels 231
10.1 Innovation: the key to competitiveness 241
10.2 Paths of brand growth and decline 242
10.3 Penetration of distributors\u2019 brands and advertising intensity 244
10.4 Sources of price differentiation between brands and hard-discount products 246
10.5 Brand capital and customer capital: matching preferences and purchase behaviour 255
11.1 The identity versus diversity dilemma 271
11.2 The double role of brand integration and differentiation 274
11.3 Differentiate what is variable from what is non-negotiable in the brand identity 276
11.4 Generalists and specialists 278
11.5 The different relationships between brands and products 285
11.6 How brands incorporate change: kernel and peripheral traits 287
11.7 Product lines must embody the core facets and each adds its own specific facets 288
11.8 Organisation of Mars masterbrand and products 289
11.9 How the brand is carried by its products 290
11.10 Identity and pyramid models 291
12.1 The Nivea extensions galaxy 307
12.2 Perimeters of brand extension 311
12.3 Rate of success of new brands vs brand extensions (OC&C) 313
12.4 The impact of brand extension on the consumer adoption process (OC&C) 313
12.5 Ayer model: how a family name impacts the sales of a new product 314
12.6 Comparative sales performance during the first two years (Nielsen) 315
12.7 The brand extension decision 317
12.8 The consequences of product and concept fit and misfit 322
12.9 Type of brand and ability to extend further 334
12.10 The process of extension 335
12.11 Framework for evaluating extensions 336
12.12 The Virgin extension model 343
13.1 Positioning alternative branding strategies 352
13.2 The six brand architecture strategies 354
13.3 The product-brand strategy 356
13.4 Range brand formation 360
13.5 Range brand structured in lines 362
13.6 Endorsing brand strategy 363
13.7 Umbrella brand strategy 364
13.8 Source brand or parent brand strategy 367
13.9 A case of brand proliferation or dilution of identity 371
13.10 3M branding options review 376
13.11 Which brand architecture is suitable for brand innovation? 382
13.12 Corporate and product branding at ICI 390
14.1 Segmenting the brand portfolio by price spectrum 400
15.1 When rebranding fails: from Fairy to Dawn (P&G) 421
x FIGURES
15.2 A stepwise approach to brand transfers (relating the type of transfer to the 
image gap) 431
16.1 Analysing the potential of an old brand 446
16.2 Sustaining brand equity long term : dual management in practice 451
17.1 Managing the globalisation process between headquarters and subsidiaries 498
18.1 What is \u2018brand equity\u2019? 504
18.2 The issue of fair valuation of brands 505
18.3 Positioning brand valuation methods 513
18.4 A multi-step approach to brand valuation 518
18.5 The Interbrand S-curve \u2013 relation between brand strength and multiple 521
18.6 Stepped graph showing relationship between brand strength and multiple 524
F IGURES x i
Tables
1.1 From awareness to financial value 14
1.2 Result of a brand tracking study 17
1.3 Brand financial valuation, August 2006 19
1.4 How brand awareness creates value and image dimensions 21
1.5 The functions of the brand for the consumer 22
1.6 Brand functions and the distributor/manufacturer power equilibrium 23
2.1 The brand as genetic programme 36
3.1 Consumer price (in euros/litre) of various orange-flavour drinks in Europe 59
4.1 Brand attachment: the 10 winning brands 72
4.2 Determinants of attachment to distributors\u2019 and producers\u2019 brands 73
4.3 How copycat resemblance influences consumers\u2019 perceptions 79
4.4 In which sectors do big brands resist trade brands and where are they defeated? 84
4.5 Percentage of consumers who intend to buy the distributor\u2019s product 85
5.1 Consumers\u2019 four concepts of luxury 97
5.2 Brand personality is related to prescription levels 110
5.3 The brand influence in medical prescription 111
5.4 The top ten European business schools 129
6.1 Evolution of brand indicators over 10 years 142
6.2 Evolution of brand capital for Coca-Cola and Danone 142
6.3 Strategic uses of co-branding 170
7.1 How to evaluate and choose a brand positioning 177
7.2 Sub-brand and master brand positioning 182
7.3 The most typical products of two mega-brands 191
7.4 Brand laddering process: the Benetton case 193
8.1 Underlying the brand is its programme 205
8.2 Comparing positioning scenarios: typical positioning scenarios for a new
Cuban rum brand 208
xii
9.1 Addressing market fragmentation 233
10.1 Advertising weight and trade brands\u2019 penetration 245
11.1 From risk to desire: the dilemma of modern branding 271
12.1 Relating extensions to strategy 296
12.2 Brand extension impact on launching costs 315
12.3 Success rate of two alternative branding policies 318
12.4 Extension strategic evaluation grid 341
13.1 \u2018House of brands\u2019 or \u2018branded house\u2019 353
13.2 Shared roles of the corporate and product brand 389
16.1 How brand equity decays over time 439
17.1 From global to local: eight alternative patterns of globalisation 459
17.2 Globalisation matrix 461
17.3 How Absolut copes with the grey market: corridor pricing 466
17.4 How global and local brands differ 468
17.5 What differences between countries would compel you to adapt the 
marketing mix of the brand? 472
17.6 Which facets of the brand mix are most often globalised? 473
17.7 Barilla\u2019s international