11 New Strategic Brand Management by Philip Kotler   4th Edition
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11 New Strategic Brand Management by Philip Kotler 4th Edition

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keep the
personalised connection between customers
and the agents themselves, who found a
lasting relationship, based on mutual recog-
nition. However, this second approach
conflicts with the need to move staff around.
Service, process and recruitment
In the services sector, in order to carry out the
primary function of any major brand (guaran-
teeing the same quality of service), the brand
is necessarily linked to the setting up of
internal and customer-facing processes. To
take the example of accounting and audit
consultancies, to be \u2018Mazars\u2019 is to differentiate
oneself from the big international agencies,
the famous \u2018big four\u2019 who are all Anglo-Saxon,
and therefore offer a different culture.
However, it is still necessary to homogenise
the internal processes, to provide more regu-
larity and the client experience. The brand is
not only a common seal linking profoundly
independent agencies in order to give an
impression of size, but the sharing of the same
concept of the profession. In services, it is
important to make the intangible tangible \u2013
hence the importance of common processes.
Naturally, this has an impact on what is
commonly known as the employer brand,
since the raw material of service is the person-
ality and competence of the people. For the
employer brand, the task is to develop its
reputation among executives or students of
the top universities, based not on better
salaries, but on shared values.
Brand and nature: fresh produce
Many mass-consumption food product
brands were born through the disappearance
of fresh produce in bulk. Sweetcorn, peas and
gherkins were all canned, giving birth to
Green Giant, Saupiquet, d\u2019Aucy, Amora,
Bonduelle and so on. Findus was the first
brand to freeze vegetables. Fleury Michon
produced plastic-wrapped ham. The big
brands were therefore born through providing
progress and practicality, precisely connected
to the removal of the vagaries of fresh produce
and the drawback of its perishable nature.
Innovation in fresh produce
We are present at a major event among small
retailers in the traditional markets themselves:
the emergence of fresh produce brands. A
stroll past market stalls, or very early in the
morning at Rungis, the world\u2019s biggest
wholesale market, is enough to show this.
Although they are a minority in number and
market share, their innovative approach is
clear: they have inserted themselves into the
mounting campaign against poor eating
habits, which advises people to eat fresh fruit
and vegetables daily. Fresh produce, however,
has an intrinsic variability derived from the
vagaries of nature: some customers prefer
more regularity and certainty. Here we find
the essence of the brand, the suppression of
perceived risk \u2013 here the qualitative risk of
pleasure and taste.
This is what the Saveol tomato brand, the
Philibon melon brand from Guadeloupe and
the Gillardeau oyster brand, to mention but a
few of the best known, have done: it is the
sign of a true brand policy. It would be wrong
to assume that these brands are products of
communication: as always, everything began
through product-related innovation. They
are based on flavour, and the shape that
makes a food item either more practical or
more interesting.
The Saveol brand is the banner under which
dozens of tomato producers have joined
together, united by a single desire to create a
superior and different product, to respect the
same innovative production processes while
eliminating insecticides (replaced by lady-
birds), and to invent a true range of flavourful
products, in previously unseen forms suitable
for different types of consumption (cherry
tomatoes, olive tomatoes, etc). This policy of
innovation is accompanied by mass-media
communication: Saveol\u2019s objective is for its
name to be the tomato brand spontaneously
cited by half the population by 2010.
Philibon, the melon from Guadeloupe,
guarantees exceptional flavour all year round.
Mr Gillardeau is the creator of an
eponymous brand that has become
omnipresent in restaurants in just a few years.
The brand guarantee relates to the qualitative
aspect of Gillardeau oysters, with guaranteed
taste and flesh all year round, everywhere in
the world. Gillardeau has built its brand
through the restaurant trade, which has then
rebounded into a reputation among the
general oyster-eating public. The market
insight on which the brand is based comes
from an understanding of the problems faced
by restaurateurs, who wish to ensure a strong,
risk-free experience for their customers. Top-
of-the-range restaurants made Gillardeau a
success, since these restaurants want to avoid
any possible problem or disappointment with
their oysters: they are committed to the
pursuit of perfection. However, its market also
contains the small quality brasserie, which by
only offering Gillardeau oysters can reassure
customers, who habitually mistrust the prove-
nance of the oyster basket.
Furthermore, Gillardeau was able to
implement a selective and controlled distri-
bution policy, ensuring exclusivities at the
wholesaler level, so that it knows exactly
where it is sold and where it is not. Control
over its own distribution is the first condition
of the premium brand.
Wine brands
Wine may also be considered as the appli-
cation of a brand to a living product. The
majority of new wine consumers in France,
and more particularly in other countries, justi-
fiably expect no surprises from wine: they
expect to find the same pleasurable taste each
time, as with Coca-Cola. The major American
successes of Yellow Tail, and also Two Bucks
Chuck (wine priced at US$2, as its name
suggests) and the Australian Jacob\u2019s Creek, are
a specific response to this expectation.
These wines have brushed aside the old-
world wines, since they were designed entirely
on the basis of the expectations of the modern
(generally Anglo-Saxon) customer and of the
distributor. They are the answer to the B to B
to C world in which we are now living (see
page 152). The key components of their
success are these:
I the ability to supply mass distribution in
quantity (therefore reaching critical mass
in production terms: an end to the
patchwork of small independent coopera-
tives, and the emergence of big capitalist
I a fruity, easy to drink flavour, designed to
please consumers who generally drink beer
or soft drinks, with priority given to white
wine served chilled;
I maintaining the taste of the wine from year
to year, thanks to the blending of different
I the lowest production costs, thanks to
legitimate innovations in productivity,
which make it possible to reap higher
margins, capable of largely financing their
I investment in the brand, rather than the
region, so as not to be limited in quantity,
and above all to generate loyalty to a single
name: the brand\u2019s own;
I logical grape variety: remember that
modern customers are not brought up on
I the capacity to create a national sales force
to visit all points of purchase and carry out
promotions at point of purchase (brand visi-
bility means the product will be picked up);
I investment in communication to cause the
brand to emerge in spontaneous awareness,
and therefore set itself apart from the thou-
sands of small wine brands;
I the capacity for regular innovation, in
order to make waves in the press and
achieve good scores from juries, or in wine
magazine categories;
I labels written in English, since the wines
hail from California, or Australia or New
Zealand, or even from South Africa.
There is nothing to say that we will never see
international brands for French wine, other
than the classic grands crus. B Magrez has
provided an example, creating the generic