NASM essentials of sports performance training
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NASM essentials of sports performance training


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ESSENTIALS OF INTEGRATED TRAINING 13
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14 CHAPTER 1
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CHAPTER 2
Introduction to
Human Movement
Science
UPON COMPLETION OF THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:
Explain functional anatomy as it relates to integrated sports performance training.
Explain the concept of functional multiplanar biomechanics.
Explain the concepts of motor learning and motor control as they relate to integrated
sports performance training.
15
Introduction
Human movement science is the study of how the human movement system (HMS) functions
in an interdependent, interrelated scheme. The HMS consists of the muscular system (func-
tional anatomy), skeletal system (functional biomechanics), and the nervous system (motor
behavior) (1\u20133) (Fig. 2.1). Although they seem separate, each system and its components must
collaborate to form interdependent links. In turn, this entire interdependent system must be
aware of its relationship to internal and external environments while gathering necessary in-
formation to produce the appropriate movement patterns. This process ensures optimum func-
tioning of the HMS and optimum human movement in sports. This chapter will review the
pertinent aspects of each component of the HMS as it relates to integrated sports performance
training.
Human movement
system
Nervous system Muscular systemSkeletal system
FIGURE 2.1 Components of the Human Movement System.
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ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY
All professions have language that is specific to their needs. The Sports Performance Professional
needs to understand the basic anatomical terminology for effective communication.
PLANES OF MOTION, AXES, AND COMBINED JOINT MOTIONS
Human movement occurs in three dimensions and is universally discussed in a system of planes
and axes (Fig. 2.2). Three imaginary planes are positioned through the body at right angles so
they intersect at the body\u2019s center of mass. These planes are termed the sagittal, frontal, and trans-
verse planes. Movement is said to occur predominantly in a specific plane when that movement
occurs along or parallel to the plane. Although movements can be dominant in one plane, no
motion occurs strictly in one plane of motion. Movement in a plane occurs around an axis run-
ning perpendicular to that plane\u2014much like the axle that a car wheel revolves around. This is
known as joint motion. Joint motions are termed for their action in each of the three planes of
motion (Table 2.1).
THE SAGITTAL PLANE
The sagittal plane bisects the body into right and left halves. Sagittal plane motion occurs
around a frontal axis (4,5,8). Movements in the sagittal plane include flexion and extension.
16 CHAPTER 2
Medial
Posterior
Transverse
Lateral
Anterior
Sagittal
Frontal
Inferior
Superior
FIGURE 2.2 Planes of Motion.
Biomechanics
Biomechanics applies the principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within
a living body (4\u20137). For purposes of this text, the specific focus will be on the motions that the
HMS produces and the forces that act upon it in order to present a basic understanding of
anatomical terminology, planes of motion, joint motions, muscle action, force-couples, leverage,
and basic muscle mechanics.
Biomechanics
A study that uses
principles of physics to
quantitatively study how
forces interact within a 
living body.
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INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE 17
Flexion occurs when the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases (5,9). Exten-
sion occurs when the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases (5,9) (Fig. 2.3).
Flexion and extension occur in many joints in the body including vertebral, shoulder, elbow,
wrist, hip, knee, foot, and hand (Fig. 2.3). The ankle is unique and has special terms from
movement in the sagittal plane. At the ankle, \u201cflexion\u201d is more accurately termed dorsiflexion
and \u201cextension\u201d is referred to as plantarflexion (4,5,9). Examples of predominantly sagittal
plane movements include bicep curls, triceps pushdowns, squats, front lunges, calf raises,
walking, running, and climbing stairs (Table 2.1).
THE FRONTAL PLANE
The frontal plane bisects the body into front and back halves with frontal plane motion occur-
ring around an anterior-posterior axis (4,5,9). Movements in the frontal plane include abduction
and adduction of the limbs (relative to the trunk), lateral flexion in the spine and eversion and
inversion of the foot and ankle complex (4,5,8,9). Abduction is a movement away from the mid-
line of the body or, similar to extension, an increase in the angle between two adjoining segments
only in the frontal plane (4,5,8,9) (Fig. 2.4). Adduction is a movement of the segment toward the
midline of the body or, like flexion, a decrease in the angle between two adjoining segments only
in the frontal plane (4,5,8,9) (Fig. 2.4). Lateral flexion is the bending of the spine (cervical, tho-
racic, lumbar) from side to side or simply side-bending (4,5). Eversion and inversion relate
specifically to the movement of the calcaneus and tarsals in the frontal plane during functional
movements of pronation and supination (discussed later) (4,5,8,9). Examples of frontal plane
movements include side lateral raises, side lunges, and side shuffling (Table 2.1).
THE TRANSVERSE PLANE
The transverse plane bisects the body to create upper and lower halves. Transverse plane motion
occurs around a longitudinal or a vertical axis (4,5,8). Movements in the transverse plane include
internal rotation and external rotation for the limbs, right and left rotation for