NASM essentials of sports performance training
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NASM essentials of sports performance training


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the human
body simultaneously coordinates these subsystems during athletic activity. Each subsystem indi-
vidually and collectively contributes to the production of efficient athletic movement by acceler-
ating, decelerating, and dynamically stabilizing the HMS during motion. 
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE MAJOR MUSCLES 
The traditional, simplistic explanation of skeletal muscles is that they work concentrically and
predominantly in one plane of motion. However, as mentioned earlier, muscles should be
viewed as functioning in all planes of motion, and throughout the full muscle action spectrum.
The following section lists attachments and innervations, as well as the isolated and integrated
functions of the major muscles of the HMS (1,6,53).
32 CHAPTER 2
Hip
adductors
Quadratus
lumborum
Gluteus
medius
FIGURE 2.17 Lateral Subsystem.
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ANTERIOR TIBIALIS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Lateral condyle and proximal two-thirds of the lateral surface of the tibia
INSERTION
\u2022 Medial and plantar aspects of the medial cuneiform and the base of
the first metatarsal
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Ankle dorsiflexion and inversion
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Ankle plantar flexion and eversion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the arch of the foot
INNERVATION
\u2022 Deep peroneal nerve
Leg Complex
POSTERIOR TIBIALIS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Proximal two-thirds of posterior surface of the tibia and fibula
INSERTION
\u2022 Every tarsal bone (naviular, cuneiform, cuboid) but the talus plus the
bases of the second through the fourth metatarsal bones. The main in-
sertion is on the navicular tuberosity and the medial cuneiform bone
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Ankle plantar flexion and inversion of the foot
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Ankle dorsiflexion and eversion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the arch of the foot
INNERVATION
\u2022 Tibial nerve
SOLEUS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Posterior surface of the fibular head and proximal one-third of its shaft
and from the posterior side of the tibia
INSERTION
\u2022 Calcaneus via the Achilles tendon
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates plantar flexion
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates ankle dorsiflexion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the foot and ankle complex
INNERVATION
\u2022 Tibial nerve
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE 33
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GASTROCNEMIUS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Posterior aspect of the lateral and medial femoral condyles
INSERTION
\u2022 Calcaneus via the Achilles tendon
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates plantar flexion
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates ankle dorsiflexion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Isometrically stabilizes the foot and ankle complex
INNERVATION
\u2022 Tibial nerve
PERONEUS LONGUS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Lateral condyle of tibia, head and proximal two-thirds of the lateral
surface of the fibula
INSERTION
\u2022 Lateral surface of the medial cuneiform and lateral side of the base of
the first metatarsal
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Plantar flexes and everts the foot
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates ankle dorsiflexion and inversion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the foot and ankle complex
INNERVATION
\u2022 Superficial peroneal nerve
BICEPS FEMORIS-LONG HEAD
ORIGIN
\u2022 Ischial tuberosity of the pelvis, part of the sacrotuberous ligament
INSERTION
\u2022 Head of the fibula
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates knee flexion and hip extension, tibial external rotation
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates knee extension, hip flexion, and tibial internal rotation
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex and knee
INNERVATION
\u2022 Tibial nerve
34 CHAPTER 2
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BICEPS FEMORIS-SHORT HEAD
ORIGIN
\u2022 Lower one-third of the posterior aspect of the femur
INSERTION
\u2022 Head of the fibula
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates knee flexion and tibial external rotation
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates knee extension and tibial internal rotation 
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the knee
INNERVATION
\u2022 Common peroneal nerve
SEMIMEMBRANOSUS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Ischial tuberosity of the pelvis
INSERTION
\u2022 Posterior aspect of the medial tibial condyle of the tibia
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates knee flexion, hip extension and tibial internal rotation
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates knee extension, hip flexion and tibial external rotation
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex and knee
INNERVATION
\u2022 Tibial nerve
SEMITENDINOSUS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Ischial tuberosity of the pelvis and part of the sacrotuberous ligament
INSERTION
\u2022 Proximal aspect of the medial tibial condyle of the tibia (pes anserine)
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates knee flexion, hip extension and tibial internal rotation
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates knee extension, hip flexion and tibial external rotation
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex and knee
INNERVATION
\u2022 Tibial nerve
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VASTUS LATERALIS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Anterior and inferior border of the greater trochanter, lateral region of
the gluteal tuberosity, lateral lip of the linea aspera of the femur
INSERTION
\u2022 Base of patella and tibial tuberosity of the tibia
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates knee extension
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates knee flexion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the knee
INNERVATION
\u2022 Femoral nerve
VASTUS MEDIALIS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Lower region of intertrochanteric line, medial lip of linea aspera, proxi-
mal medial supracondylar line of the femur
INSERTION
\u2022 Base of patella, tibial tuberosity of the tibia
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates knee extension
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates knee flexion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the knee
INNERVATION
\u2022 Femoral nerve
VASTUS INTERMEDIUS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Anterior-lateral regions of the upper two-thirds of the femur
INSERTION
\u2022 Base of patella, tibial tuberosity of the tibia
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates knee extension
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates knee flexion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the knee
INNERVATION
\u2022 Femoral nerve
36 CHAPTER 2
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RECTUS FEMORIS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Anterior-inferior iliac spine of the pelvis
INSERTION
\u2022 Base of patella, tibial tuberosity of the tibia
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates knee extension and hip flexion
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates knee flexion and hip extension
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex and knee
INNERVATION
\u2022 Femoral nerve
ADDUCTOR LONGUS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Anterior surface of the inferior pubic ramus of the pelvis
INSERTION
\u2022 Proximal one-third of the linea aspera of the femur
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates hip adduction, flexion and internal rotation
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates hip abduction, extension and external rotation
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
INNERVATION
\u2022 Obturator nerve
Hip Complex
ADDUCTOR MAGNUS,ANTERIOR FIBERS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Ischial ramus of the pelvis
INSERTION
\u2022 Linea aspera of the femur
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Accelerates hip adduction, flexion and internal rotation
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Decelerates hip abduction, extension and external rotation
Isometric Action