NASM essentials of sports performance training
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NASM essentials of sports performance training


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\u2022 Elbow extension, shoulder extension
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Elbow flexion, shoulder flexion 
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the elbow and shoulder girdle
INNERVATION
\u2022 Radial nerve
Arm Musculature
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INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE 55
PRONATOR QUADRATUS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Distal ulna
INSERTION
\u2022 Distal radius
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Pronates forearm
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Forearm supination
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes distal radioulnar joint
INNERVATION
\u2022 Anterior interosseus nerve
ANCONEUS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Lateral epicondyle of humerus
INSERTION
\u2022 Olecranon process, posterior ulna
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Extends elbow
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Elbow flexion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the elbow
INNERVATION
\u2022 Radial nerve
BRACHIORADIALIS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
INSERTION
\u2022 Styloid process of radius
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Flexes elbow
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Elbow extension
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the elbow
INNERVATION
\u2022 Radial nerve
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56 CHAPTER 2
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
ORIGIN
\u2022 Sternal head: Top of Maubrium of the sternum; Clavicular head: Medial
one-third of the clavicle
INSERTION
\u2022 Mastoid process, lateral superior nuchal line of the occiput of the skull
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Cervical flexion, rotation and lateral flexion
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Cervical extension, rotation and lateral flexion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the cervical spine and acromioclavicular joint
INNERVATION
\u2022 Lower subscapular nerve (C6-C7)
Neck Musculature
PRONATOR TERES
ORIGIN
\u2022 Medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna
INSERTION
\u2022 Radius
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Pronates forearm
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Forearm supination
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes proximal radioulnar joint and elbow
INNERVATION
\u2022 Median nerve
SUPINATOR
ORIGIN
\u2022 Lateral epicondyle of humerus
INSERTION
\u2022 Radius
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Supinates forearm
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Forearm pronation
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes proximal radioulnar joint and elbow
INNERVATION
\u2022 Radial nerve
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INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE 57
SCALENES
ORIGIN
\u2022 Transverse processes of C3-C7
INSERTION
\u2022 First and second ribs
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Cervical flexion, rotation and lateral flexion; Assists rib elevation
during inhalation
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Cervical extension, rotation and lateral flexion
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the cervical spine 
INNERVATION
\u2022 Lower subscapular nerve (C6-C7)
LONGUS COLLI
ORIGIN
\u2022 Anterior portion of T1-T3
INSERTION
\u2022 Anterior and lateral C1
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Cervical flexion, lateral flexion and ipsilateral rotation
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Cervical extension, lateral flexion and contralateral rotation
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the cervical spine 
INNERVATION
\u2022 Lower subscapular nerve (C6-C7)
LONGUS CAPITUS
ORIGIN
\u2022 Transverse processes of C3-C6
INSERTION
\u2022 Inferior occipital bone
ISOLATED FUNCTION
Concentric Action
\u2022 Cervical flexion and lateral flexion
INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Eccentric Action
\u2022 Cervical extension
Isometric Action
\u2022 Stabilizes the cervical spine
INNERVATION
\u2022 Lower subscapular nerve (C6-C7)
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A review of the actions within this section of pertinent skeletal muscles should make it clear
that muscles function in all three planes of motion (sagittal, frontal, and transverse) using the en-
tire spectrum of muscle actions (eccentric, isometric, and concentric). In addition, the section
shows which muscles work synergistically with each other to produce force, stabilize the body, re-
duce force, or all three.
Sports performance exercise programs become more specific when there is a broader under-
standing of functional anatomy. A limited understanding of the synergistic functions of the HMS
in all three planes of motion can lead to a lack of optimum performance, the potential of devel-
oping muscle imbalances, and injury.
58 CHAPTER 2
Motor Behavior
The functional anatomy and biomechanics portions of this chapter present information about
how the different parts of the HMS operate as a synergistic, integrated functional unit in all three
planes of motion. This is accomplished and retained using the concept of motor behavior. Motor
behavior is the HMS\u2019s response to internal and external environmental stimuli. The study of mo-
tor behavior examines the manner by which the nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems interact
to produce skilled movement using sensory information from internal and external environ-
ments. 
Motor behavior is the collective study of motor control, motor learning, and motor develop-
ment (13,54) (Fig. 2.18). Motor control is the study of posture and movements with the in-
volved structures and mechanisms used by the central nervous system to assimilate and integrate
sensory information with previous experiences (45,46). Motor control is concerned with what
central nervous system structures are involved with motor behavior to produce movement (46).
Motor learning is the utilization of these processes through practice and experience, leading to a
relatively permanent change in one\u2019s capacity to produce skilled movements (21). Finally, motor
development is defined as the change in motor behavior over time throughout the lifespan (55).
For the purposes of this text, we will confine this section to a brief discussion of motor control
and motor learning.
MOTOR CONTROL
To move in an organized and efficient manner, the HMS must exhibit precise control over its col-
lective segments. This segmental control is an integrated process involving neural, skeletal, and
muscular components to produce appropriate motor responses. This process (and the study of
these movements) is known as motor control and focuses on the involved structures and mech-
anisms used by the central nervous system to integrate internal and external sensory information
with previous experiences to produce a skilled motor response. Essentially, motor control is con-
cerned with the neural structures that are involved with motor behavior and how they produce
movement (13,23,24,46).
One of the most important concepts in motor control and motor learning is how the central
nervous system incorporates the information it receives to produce, refine, manipulate, and re-
member a movement pattern. The best place to start is with sensory information followed by pro-
prioception, muscle synergies, and sensorimotor integration. 
Motor behavior
Motor learning Motor developmentMotor control
FIGURE 2.18 Components of Motor Behavior.
Motor Behavior
Motor response to in-
ternal and external environmen-
tal stimuli.
Motor Control
How the central nerv-
ous system integrates internal
and external sensory informa-
tion with previous experiences
to produce a motor response.
Motor Learning
Integration of motor
control processes through prac-
tice and experience, leading to
a relatively permanent change
in the capacity to produce
skilled movements.
Motor Development
The change in motor
behavior over time throughout
the lifespan.
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INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE 59
SENSORY INFORMATION
Sensory information is the data that the central nervous system receives from sensory