NASM essentials of sports performance training
DisciplinaEducação Física61.127 materiais • 328.421 seguidores
the athlete to absorb the shock of landing. These examples get the athlete involved in his/her own 60 CHAPTER 2 Feedback Internal feedback: sen- sory information provided by the body via length-tension rela- tionships, force-couple relation- ships, and arthrokinematics to monitor movement and the en- vironment. External feedback: information provided by some external source. Knowledge of Results Feedback used after the completion of a movement, to help inform the athlete about the outcome of his performance. Knowledge of Performance Feedback that provides information about the quality of the movement during exercise. TABLE 2.5 Muscle Synergies Bench Press Squats Prime Mover Pectoralis Major Quadriceps Gluteus Maximus Synergists Anterior Deltoid Hamstrings Triceps Adductor Magnus Stabilizers Rotator Cuff Lower Extremity Musculature \u2022 Flexor Hallicus Longus \u2022 Posterior Tibialis \u2022 Anterior Tibialis \u2022 Soleus \u2022 Gastrocnemius Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Complex \u2022 Adductor Longus \u2022 Adductor Brevis \u2022 Transverse Abdominus \u2022 Gluteus Medius Scapular Stabilizers \u2022 Trapezius \u2022 Rhomboids Cervical Stabilizers LWBK329-4205G-c02_p015-064.qxd 27/05/2009 08:53 AM Page 60 Aptara sensory process. Such feedback will be given less frequently as the athlete becomes more pro- ficient (63). These forms of external feedback identify performance errors. This feedback is also an im- portant component in motivation. Further, feedback gives the athlete supplemental sensory in- put to help create an awareness of the desired action (21). It is important to state, however, that an athlete must not become too dependent on external feedback, especially from the Sports Per- formance Professional, as this may detract from the athlete\u2019s own responsiveness to internal sen- sory input (21,46). This could alter sensorimotor integration and affect the learning by the ath- lete and the ultimate performance of new and skilled movement. SUMMARY INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE 61 In summary, each component of the HMS is interdependent. The HMS must work inter- dependently to gather information from internal and external environments to create, learn, and refine movements (or motor behavior) through proprioception, sensorimotor integration, and muscle synergies necessary to create efficient movement (motor control). Then, repeated practice, and incorporating internal and external feedback allows this effi- cient movement to be reproduced (motor learning). REFERENCES 1. Newmann D. 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