NASM essentials of sports performance training
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NASM essentials of sports performance training

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athlete to absorb the shock of landing. These examples get the athlete involved in his/her own
Internal feedback: sen-
sory information provided by
the body via length-tension rela-
tionships, force-couple relation-
ships, and arthrokinematics to
monitor movement and the en-
External feedback: information
provided by some external
Knowledge of Results
Feedback used after the
completion of a movement, to
help inform the athlete about
the outcome of his performance.
Knowledge of
Feedback that provides
information about the quality of
the movement during exercise.
Muscle Synergies
Bench Press Squats
Prime Mover Pectoralis Major Quadriceps
Gluteus Maximus
Synergists Anterior Deltoid Hamstrings
Triceps Adductor Magnus
Stabilizers Rotator Cuff Lower Extremity Musculature
\u2022 Flexor Hallicus Longus
\u2022 Posterior Tibialis
\u2022 Anterior Tibialis
\u2022 Soleus
\u2022 Gastrocnemius
Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Complex
\u2022 Adductor Longus
\u2022 Adductor Brevis
\u2022 Transverse Abdominus
\u2022 Gluteus Medius
Scapular Stabilizers
\u2022 Trapezius
\u2022 Rhomboids
Cervical Stabilizers
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sensory process. Such feedback will be given less frequently as the athlete becomes more pro-
ficient (63).
These forms of external feedback identify performance errors. This feedback is also an im-
portant component in motivation. Further, feedback gives the athlete supplemental sensory in-
put to help create an awareness of the desired action (21). It is important to state, however, that
an athlete must not become too dependent on external feedback, especially from the Sports Per-
formance Professional, as this may detract from the athlete\u2019s own responsiveness to internal sen-
sory input (21,46). This could alter sensorimotor integration and affect the learning by the ath-
lete and the ultimate performance of new and skilled movement.
In summary, each component of the HMS is interdependent. The HMS must work inter-
dependently to gather information from internal and external environments to create,
learn, and refine movements (or motor behavior) through proprioception, sensorimotor
integration, and muscle synergies necessary to create efficient movement (motor control).
Then, repeated practice, and incorporating internal and external feedback allows this effi-
cient movement to be reproduced (motor learning).
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