NASM essentials of sports performance training
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NASM essentials of sports performance training

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130 31.13 30.82 31.89 38.15 41.65 39.77 40.91 40.73 43.06 46.47
135 31.62 31.30 32.31 38.71 42.27 40.31 41.48 41.24 43.56 47.00
140 32.08 31.77 32.71 39.24 42.87 40.83 42.04 41.72 44.03 47.51
145 32.53 32.22 33.11 39.76 43.46 41.34 42.57 42.19 44.49 48.00
150 32.97 32.66 33.48 40.26 44.02 41.82 43.09 42.65 44.94 48.47
155 33.39 33.08 33.85 40.74 44.57 42.29 43.59 43.09 45.37 48.93
160 33.80 33.49 34.20 41.21 45.10 42.75 44.08 43.52 45.79 49.38
165 34.20 33.89 34.55 41.67 45.62 43.20 44.55 43.94 46.20 49.82
170 34.59 34.28 34.88 42.11 46.12 43.63 45.01 44.34 46.59 50.24
175 34.97 34.66 35.21 42.54 46.61 44.05 45.46 44.73 46.97 50.65
180 35.33 35.02 35.53 42.96 47.08 44.46 45.89 45.12 47.35 51.05
185 35.69 35.38 35.83 43.37 47.54 44.86 46.32 45.49 47.71 51.44
190 36.04 35.73 36.13 43.77 48.00 45.25 46.73 45.85 48.07 51.82
195 36.38 36.07 36.43 44.16 48.44 45.63 47.14 46.21 48.41 52.19
200 36.71 36.40 36.71 44.54 48.87 46.00 47.53 46.55 48.75 52.55
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In addition, race is a factor and specific body composition equations have been developed
for Japanese, American Indians, blacks, whites, and Hispanics. See Table 3.4 for comparison of
body fat percentages in various athletes (32).
Circumference measurements can also be another source of feedback used with athletes who
have the goal of altering body composition. They are designed to assess girth changes in the body.
The most important factor to consider when taking circumference measurements is consistency.
Also make sure the tape measure is taut and horizontal around the area that is being measured.
You must be consistent in how taut the tape is pulled to avoid compressing the underlying tissue.
Take measurements in front of a floor-length mirror to confirm the tape is indeed horizontal. 
1. Neck: Level with the Adam\u2019s apple (Fig. 3.11)
2. Chest: Across the nipple line (Fig. 3.12)
3. Waist: Measure at the narrowest point of the waist, below the rib cage and just above the
iliac crest (top of the hipbones). If there is no apparent narrowing of the waist, measure
at the naval (Fig. 3.13).
4. Hip: With feet together, measure circumference at the widest portion of the buttocks 
(Fig. 3.14).
5. Thigh: Measured 10 inches above the top of the patella (Fig. 3.15).
Typical Ranges of Body Fat Percentage of Athletes
Sport Men (%) Women (%)
Aesthetic sports (gymnastics, diving, figure skating) \ufffd7 \ufffd15
Baseball/softball 11\u201313 21\u201325
Basketball\u2014centers 11\u201313 19\u201320
Basketball\u2014guards/forward 8\u201310 16\u201318
Bodybuilders \ufffd7 \ufffd15
Canoe/kayak 11\u201313 19\u201320
Cross country runner \ufffd7 \ufffd15
Decathlon 8\u201310 16\u201318
Discus 14\u201317 21\u201325
Downhill skiing 11\u201313 19\u201320
Football\u2014lineman 18\u201322
Football\u2014quarterbacks, linebackers, kickers 14\u201317
Heptathlon 8\u201310 16\u201318
Hockey 14\u201317 21\u201325
Jockeys 14\u201317 21\u201325
Power lifting 14\u201317 21\u201325
Racquetball 8\u201310 16\u201318
Rowing 8\u201310 16\u201318
Shot put 18\u201322 26\u201330
Soccer 8\u201310 16\u201318
Speed skating 11\u201313 19\u201320
Tennis 14\u201317 21\u201325
Volleyball 14\u201317 21\u201325
Weightlifters (Olympic) 11\u201313 19\u201320
Wrestling \ufffd7
Modified from Nieman D. Fitness and Sports Medicine. Palo Alto, CA: Bull Publishing; 1995.
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FIGURE 3.11 Neck circumference.
FIGURE 3.14 Hip circumference.
FIGURE 3.12 Chest circumference.
FIGURE 3.13 Waist circumference.
FIGURE 3.15 Thigh circumference. FIGURE 3.16 Calf circumference.
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6. Calves: At the maximal calf circumference between the ankle and the knee (Fig. 3.16).
7. Upper arm: At the maximal circumference of the biceps, measure with arm extended,
palm facing forward (Fig. 3.17).
Although this assessment is not designed to assess body fat, the body mass index (BMI) is a quick
and easy method for determining if your athlete\u2019s weight is appropriate for their height, but is not
without its limitations (33). To assess weight relative to height, divide body weight (in kilo-
grams) by height (in meters squared). BMI is reported as kg/m2.
It has been shown that obesity-related health problems increase when a person\u2019s BMI ex-
ceeds 25. The obesity classifications using BMI are the following:
\u2022 Mild \ufffd 25\u201330
\u2022 Moderate \ufffd 30\u201335
\u2022 Severe \ufffd35
A limitation in using BMI is that athletes with a lot of muscle mass and low body fat can have a
BMI over 25, a common situation with males who play football, lift weights, or are body
builders. See Table 3.5 for some examples of BMI and body fat in a selection of athletes.
FIGURE 3.17 Biceps circum-
BMI and Body Fat Percentage in Selected Athletes
Males Females
Sport BMI % Fat BMI % Fat
Basketball 26.0 12.7 24.5 20.7
Wrestling 25.2 10.4
Hockey 26.0 12.9
Football 28.1 13.9
Football lineman 36.0 27.7
Rowing 24.2 26.4
Softball 25.7 26.0
Nonathletes 26.0 17.7 23.4 28.5
Modified from Neville A, Stewart A, Olds T, et al. Relationship between adiposity and body size reveals lim-
itations of BMI. Am J Phys Anthropol 2006;129:151\u201356.
The production of movement depends on the structural integrity and alignment of the human
movement system. This structural alignment is known as posture. Posture is the independent and
interdependent alignment (static posture) and function (transitional and dynamic posture) of all
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components of the human movement system at any given moment, and is controlled by the cen-
tral nervous system (19,34\u201336).
Posture is often viewed as being static (or without movement). However, everyday posture
changes constantly to meet the demands placed on the human movement system. The main pur-
pose of proper posture is to maintain enough structural efficiency to overcome the constant
forces being placed upon the body (i.e., gravity) (37,38). Structural efficiency is defined as the
alignment of the musculoskeletal system, which allows our center of gravity to be maintained
over a base of support. 
Any deviation from proper postural alignment can cause a change in the body\u2019s center of
gravity, which affects the functional efficiency of the human movement system (39). Functional
efficiency is defined as the ability of the neuromuscular system to monitor and manipulate move-
ment during functional tasks using the least amount of energy and creating the least amount of
stress on the human movement system.
Proper postural alignment allows the human movement system to produce high levels of func-
tional strength with optimal neuromuscular efficiency. Functional strength is the ability of the
neuromuscular system to perform dynamic eccentric, isometric, and concentric muscle actions in
all three planes of motion.
Without proper postural alignment, we set the body up for altered movement patterns that
can lead to overuse injuries. Altered movement patterns result from muscle imbalances, which
can place unusual stresses on the joints (35,40). This affects other joints and muscles up and
down the kinetic chain that can cause tissue stress throughout the body. 
Ideal functional posture maintains the structural integrity and optimum alignment of each com-
ponent of the human movement system. This promotes optimum length-tension relationships,
force-couple relationships, and joint arthrokinematics (35,36).
A relationship exists between tension development in a muscle and the length of the mus-
cle. There is an optimum length at which the muscle is capable of developing maximal tension
(length-tension relationship, see Chapter