NASM essentials of sports performance training
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NASM essentials of sports performance training


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PERFORMANCE TESTING 97
FIGURE 3.53 Sorensen Erector Spinae Test position. FIGURE 3.54 Sorensen Erector Spinae Test movement.
SINGLE-LEG STAR BALANCE EXCURSION TEST
Purpose: This assessment measures dynamic balance and neuromuscular efficiency of the testing
leg and also establishes objective range of motion measurements during closed chain functional
movements. 
Procedure:
Position:
1. The individual is instructed to stand on the testing leg. 
2. They are instructed to squat down as far as they can control with the knee aligned in a
neutral position (balance threshold) (Fig. 3.55).
FIGURE 3.55 Single-leg STAR Excur-
sion Test position.
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Movement:
3. They are then to reach with their opposite leg in the sagittal, frontal and then the trans-
verse plane. The Sports Performance Professional assesses which plane of motion the ath-
lete has the least amount of control (Fig. 3.56).
4. The Sports Performance Professional can also measure from the first toe of the test leg to
the heel of the reaching leg. 
5. A goniometer can be used to measure closed chain range of motion at the ankle, knee,
hip, and lumbar spine. This can be compared to the other planes of motion to assess any
differences.
DAVIES TEST
Purpose: This assessment measures upper extremity agility and stabilization (48). This assess-
ment may not be suitable for athletes who lack shoulder stability. 
Procedure:
Position:
1. Placing two pieces of tape on the floor, 36 inches apart.
2. Have athlete assume a push-up position, with one hand on each piece of tape (Fig. 3.57).
98 CHAPTER 3
A B C
FIGURE 3.56 Single-leg STAR Excursion Test movement.
FIGURE 3.57 Davies test position.
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SPORTS PERFORMANCE TESTING 99
BA
FIGURE 3.58 Davies test movement.
Distance
of points TimeTrial #
Repetitions 
performed
136 inches
36 inches 2
36 inches
15 secs.
15 secs.
15 secs.3
FIGURE 3.59 Checklist for
the Davies movement.
Movement:
3. Instruct athlete to quickly move his/her right hand to touch the left hand (Fig. 3.58).
4. Perform alternating touching on each side for 15 seconds.
5. Repeat for three trials.
6. Reassess in the future to measure improvement of number of touches. 
7. Record the number of lines touched by both hands in Figure 3.59.
STRENGTH ASSESSMENTS
UPPER EXTREMITY STRENGTH ASSESSMENT: BENCH PRESS
Purpose: This assessment is designed to estimate the one-rep maximum on overall upper body
strength of the pressing musculature. This test can also be used to determine training intensities
of the bench press.
Procedure:
Position:
1. Position athlete supine on a bench. Feet should be pointed straight ahead. The low back
should be in a neutral position (Fig. 3.60).
A B
FIGURE 3.60 Bench press assessment.
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Movement:
2. Warm up with a light resistance that can be easily performed, 8 to 10 repetitions.
3. Rest for 1 minute.
4. Add 10 to 20 pounds (or 5 to 10% of initial load) and perform 3 to 5 repetitions. 
5. Rest for 2 minutes.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until the individual fails at 3 to 5 repetitions.
7. Use the 1-rep maximum estimation chart in the appendix to calculate estimated 1 
repetition max.
185-POUND BENCH PRESS\u2014BASKETBALL
Purpose: This is a test of maximum strength and repetition (strength) endurance. Each athlete is
given one attempt at completing a maximum number of repetitions with 185 pounds.
Procedure:
1. Have the athlete perform 10 push-ups and then take a 60-second rest.
2. Next, have the athlete perform 5 repetitions at 135 pounds of the bench press.
3. Take a 90-second rest.
4. Finally, have the athlete perform the bench press using 185 pounds for the maximum
number of repetitions. 
5. Two spotters are used on each athlete. One spotter gives the athlete a lift off, counts the
number of reps, and makes sure that each repetition is fully locked out at the top. The
other spotter watches to make sure that the athlete\u2019s hips stay in contact with the bench
(no arching).
LOWER-EXTREMITY STRENGTH ASSESSMENT: SQUAT
Purpose: This assessment is designed to estimate the 1-repetition squat maximum and overall
lower body strength. This test can also be used to determine training intensities for the squat.
Procedure:
Position:
1. Feet should be shoulder-width apart, pointed straight ahead with knees in line with the
toes. The low back should be in a neutral position (Fig. 3.61).
100 CHAPTER 3
A B
FIGURE 3.61 Squat assessment.
Movement:
2. Warm up with a light resistance that can be easily performed, 8 to 10 repetitions.
3. Rest for 1 minute.
4. Add 30 to 40 pounds (or 10 to 20% of initial load) and perform 3 to 5 repetitions. 
5. Rest for 2 minutes.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until the individual fails at 3 to 5 repetitions.
7. Use the 1-repetition maximum estimation chart in the appendix to calculate estimated 
1-repetition maximum.
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SPORTS PERFORMANCE TESTING 101
A B
FIGURE 3.62 Pull-up test.
A B
FIGURE 3.63 Push-up test.
PULL-UPS
Purpose: This test measures muscular endurance of the upper body, primarily the pulling
muscles. 
Procedure:
Position:
1. Athlete grasps the bar with a pronated grip (Fig. 3.62).
Movement:
2. The athlete performs the pull-up to exhaustion. 
3. Record the total number of repetitions without compensating with body swings, kicking,
or creating momentum.
4. The athlete should be able to perform more pull-ups when reassessed.
PUSH-UPS
Purpose: This test measures muscular endurance of the upper body, primarily the pushing
muscles. 
Procedure:
Position:
1. In push-up position (ankles, knees, hips, shoulders, and head in a straight line), the
athlete lowers body to touch partner\u2019s closed fist placed under chest, and repeats for 
60 seconds or until exhaustion without compensating (low back arches, cervical spine
extends; Fig. 3.63).
2. Record number of actual touches reported from partner.
3. The athlete should be able to perform more push-ups when reassessed.
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102 CHAPTER 3
A B
FIGURE 3.64 Rotation medicine ball throw.
A B
FIGURE 3.65 Overhead medicine ball throw.
POWER ASSESSMENTS
ROTATION MEDICINE BALL THROW
Purpose: This assessment measures total body transverse plane strength and power.
Procedure:
Position:
1. Athlete begins perpendicular to the throwing-zone holding the medicine ball with both
hands (5 to 10% of body weight). 
Movement:
2. The athlete rotates through the hips (similar to a batter\u2019s swing) and throws the medicine
ball forward as far as possible (Fig. 3.64).
3. Compare right to left.
OVERHEAD MEDICINE BALL THROW
Purpose: This assessment measures total body strength and power.
Procedure:
Position:
1. Using a medicine ball that does not exceed 5% of the athlete\u2019s body weight, begin with
medicine ball in hands with arms straight. 
Movement:
2. Explosively throw the ball for maximal distance (Fig. 3.65). 
3. Measure the relative distance from the starting line to the point of first contact of the
medicine ball.
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STANDING SOCCER THROW
Purpose: This assessment measures total power of the core and upper extremities.
Procedure:
Position:
1. Keep feet in a staggered stance holding a medicine ball (5 to 10% of body weight).
Movement:
2. Using proper soccer throw-in technique, bring the arms over your head and throw the
medicine ball forward as far as you can without moving your feet (Fig. 3.66).
3. Measure the distance thrown.
DOUBLE-LEG VERTICAL JUMP
Purpose: