NASM essentials of sports performance training
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NASM essentials of sports performance training

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will help reduce lactic acid formation by
increasing the fractional utilization of fatty acids as a mitochondrial fuel source, while facilitat-
ing lactic acid removal (4,5).
Early work in exercise physiology was directed at determining the metabolic demands of dif-
ferent sports. The Sports Performance Professional who designs workouts for athletes can use
Exercise Duration for Energy Systems and Supplies Used
Estimated Time Energy System Used Energy Supply Used
1\u20134 seconds Anaerobic ATP in muscle
4\u201320 seconds Anaerobic ATP \ufffd CP
20\u201345 seconds Anaerobic ATP \ufffd CP \ufffd muscle glycogen
45\u2013120 seconds Anaerobic and lactic Muscle glycogen
120\u2013240 seconds Aerobic and anaerobic Muscle glycogen \ufffd lactic acid
Over 240 seconds Aerobic Muscle glycogen \ufffd fatty acids
Anaerobic Threshold
The exercise intensity at
which lactic acid starts to accu-
mulate in the bloodstream.This
happens when it is produced
faster than it can be removed
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Table 5.2 to understand which system supplies the most energy as well as which system probably
needs the most training emphasis for competition.
No sport is dependent on a single energy system, so each sport needs to focus on all energy
systems during training. The relative training fraction devoted to each system can be estimated
using data from these types of tables. 
Consider an athlete starting to jog on a treadmill that is going 7 mph. After the first step, the
muscles have to increase the rate of ATP to produce the required energy for the new physical de-
mands of the 7 mph pace. In the transition from rest to light or moderate exercise, oxygen con-
sumption (or VO2) increases rapidly and reaches a steady state within 1 to 4 minutes depending
on age and one\u2019s level of fitness. The fact that the VO2 does not increase instantaneously to a steady
state value means that an anaerobic energy source has to contribute to the overall production of
ATP at the beginning of exercise. At 7 mph, the energy demand of the first steps (well before steady
state is reached) is the same as the last steps (well after attaining steady state). The body has to get
energy from somewhere while the aerobic system \u201ccatches up\u201d with its production of energy. At
the onset of exercise, the ATP-CP system is the first active bioenergetic pathway that gives way to
glycolysis and then finally to aerobic energy production (4). After a steady state is reached, the
body\u2019s ATP requirement is met via the balanced delivery and use of oxygen using aerobic metabo-
lism. Energy needed for exercise and sports is not provided by any one bioenergetic pathway, but
rather from a mixture of several metabolic systems that overlap based on the intensity and dura-
tion of work.
Percentage of Each Energy System Used During Sports Activities
Sport ATP/CP Glycolysis Oxidative
Basketball 60 20 20
Fencing 90 10 0
Field Events 90 10 0
Golf Swing 95 5 0
Gymnastics 80 15 5
Hockey 50 20 30
Running (distance) 10 20 70
Rowing 20 30 50
Skiing 33 33 33
Soccer 50 20 30
Sprints 90 10 0
Swimming (1,500 m) 10 20 70
Tennis 70 20 10
Volleyball 80 5 15
Understanding Heart Rate Formulas, Heart
Rate Training Zones and Base Training
Heart rates and heart rate training zones are convenient tools for monitoring training intensity
and are determined by mathematical formulas that are extremely useful when used to estimate
the maximum heart rate or the appropriate training zones that an athlete could safely train at
without risking harm.
Here are two common formulas for calculating heart rate maximum. 
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The most commonly used formula to find Heart Rate Maximum (or, HRmax) is \u201c220-age,\u201d which
is shown below:
220 \ufffd age \ufffd HRmax
Dr. William Haskell (developer of the aforementioned formula) has been quoted as saying,
\u201cThe formula was never supposed to be an absolute guide to rule people\u2019s training\u201d (6). Estimat-
ing maximal heart rate from mathematical formulas can produce results that are \ufffd10 to 12 bpm
off the actual maximal heart rate (7). Accordingly, training advisors and coaches should never use
this, or any other formula, as an absolute. The inherent error in the method means such formu-
las should be used as a broad guideline from which all athletes can be given a structured car-
diorespiratory training program. 
Since the basic formula for age-adjusted estimate of maximal heart rate was developed, many new
formulas have been established to help improve heart rate training zones and training programs.
One formula, the Karvonen Method, adds the concept of the heart rate reserve (the difference between
resting and maximal heart rate) to determine training zones (8). The formula can be seen below:
[(220 \ufffd age) \u2013 resting heart rate] \ufffd desired % for training 
\ufffd resting heart rate \ufffd Training Heart Rate
Although such formulas give a reasonable guideline for a training heart rate, more precise
statements can be made from metabolic measurements such as ventilatory thresholds, lactate
acid accumulation, or others that require technical expertise and equipment not available to the
majority of athletes.
Formulas can also have some limitation when applied across the age spectrum. Consider the
following example of a 25-year-old athlete. The formula incorporates the athlete\u2019s resting heart
rate to determine heart rate training zones. 
If this 25-year-old athlete has a resting heart rate of 40 bpm (which is considered very good),
then the formula would be calculated as follows (using, in this example, 85% of HR max):
220 \ufffd 25 (age) \ufffd 195
195 \ufffd 40 (resting heart rate) \ufffd 155
155 \ufffd 85% \ufffd 132
132 \ufffd 40 \ufffd 172 bpm
However, if that same athlete is injured and cannot walk for several months, that athlete\u2019s resting
heart rate may increase to 70 bpm. Using the same formula, the outcome would be:
220 \ufffd 25 (age) \ufffd 195
195 \ufffd 70 (resting heart rate) \ufffd 125
125 \ufffd 85% \ufffd 106
106 \ufffd 70 \ufffd 176 bpm
In the second example, the athlete will need to attain a higher heart rate when deconditioned, as
opposed to when he/she is in good shape. Of course, in the trained state, the athlete has a greater
reserve to progress to the heart rate target that will be reached at a higher workload. But, is this
the most appropriate training zone for this athlete given his condition?
There are many factors that could affect heart rate zones, so simply using a set formula will not
always be precise. However, the Karvonen Method provides a usable, and widely accepted, guide-
line. This text intends merely to point out existing flaws in order to increase the awareness of the
Sports Performance Professional. One advantage of the Karvonen formula is that it solves to a
narrower target heart rate range. For example, consider the 30-year-old athlete whose prescribed
training zone is 60\u201385%. Using the 220 \u2013 age formula gives a target range of 114\u2013162. If this ath-
lete\u2019s resting heart rate is 70, the Karvonen formula gives a target range of 142\u2013172. Then as fitness
improves and the resting heart rate drops to 50, the new revised training range will be 134\u2013169.
Later, this chapter will demonstrate how to calculate heart rate training zones and make ad-
justments in these zones based on the athlete\u2019s performance, not just based on age.
Training Zones
Many catch phrases are used to help athletes understand or utilize training principles. Rela-
tive to cardiorespiratory training, the phrases \u201cfat burning zone\u201d (about 60\u201375% of capacity)
and \u201ccardio zone\u201d (beginning at about 80%