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Livro do Journee - Offshore Hydromechanics

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notes from a ”student-point-
of-view”.
Last but not least, the authors are very thankful for the patience shown by their superiors
at the university, as well as their families at home. They could not have delivered the extra
but very intellectually rewarding e¤ort without this (moral) support.
Authors
The author team brings together expertise from a wide variety of …elds, including Naval
Architecture as well as Civil and Mechanical Engineering. They have tried to demonstrate
here that a team can know more. More speci…cally, the following two Delft University of
Technology faculty members have taken primarily responsibility for producing this book:
² Ir. J.M.J. Journée, Associate Professor,
Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory, Maritime Technology Department,
Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands.
Tel: +31 15 278 3881
E-mail: J.M.J.Journee@wbmt.tudelft.nl
Internet: http://www.shipmotions.nl
² W.W. Massie, MSc, P.E., Associate Professor,
O¤shore Technology, Civil Engineering Faculty,
Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands.
Tel: +31 15 278 4614
E-mail: Massie@o¤shore.tudelft.nl
0-16 CONTENTS
Feel free to contact them with positive as well as negative comments on this text.
Both authors are fortunate to have been educated before the digital computer revolution.
Indeed, FORTRAN was developed only after they were in college. While they have both
used computers extensively in their career, they have not become slaves to methods which
rely exclusively on ’black box’ computer programs.
The authors are aware that this …rst edition of O¤shore Hydromechanics is still not com-
plete in all details. Some references to materials, adapted from the work of others may still
be missing, and an occasional additional …gure can improve the presentation as well. In
some ways a book such as this has much in common with software: It never works perfectly
the …rst time it is run!
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
The development of this text book has been driven by the needs of engineers working in
the sea. This subsection lists a number of questions which can result from very practical
general o¤shore engineering situations. It is the intention that the reader will become
equipped with the knowledge needed to attack these problems during his or her study of
this book; problems such as:
² How do I determine the design (hydrodynamic) loads on a …xed o¤shore tower struc-
ture?
² Can a speci…ed object be safely loaded and carried by a heavy lift ‡oat-on ‡oat-o¤
vessel?
² What is the opimum speed of a given supply boat under the given sea conditions?
² How should a semi-submersible platform be ballasted to survive an extreme storm?
² Under what conditions must a ‡oating drilling rig stop work as a result too much
motion?
² How important is the heading of a drilling ship for its behavior in waves?
² What dynamic positioning power is needed to keep a given drilling ship on station
under a given storm condition?
² How will the productivity of a marine suction dredge decline as the sea becomes
rougher?
² What sea conditions make it irresponsible to tranfer cargo from a supply boat to a
…xed or another ‡oating platform?
² How does one compute the wave and current forces on a large truss-type tower
structure in the sea?
² How can the maximum wave and current loads on a truss-type tower structure be
estimated e¢ciently?
0J.M.J. Journée and W.W. Massie, ”OFFSHORE HYDROMECHANICS”, First Edition, January 2001,
Delft University of Technology. For updates see web site: http://www.shipmotions.nl.
1-2 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
² What sea bed changes can be expected near a pipeline or small subsea structure?
In contrast to some other books, this one attempts to prevent a gap from occurring between
material covered here and material which would logically be presented in following texts.
For example, after the forces and motions of a ship have been determined in chapter 8, the
treatment continues to determine the internal loads within the ship. This forms a good
link to ship structures which will then work this out even further to yield local stresses,
etc.
1.1 De…nition of Motions
Figure 1.1: De…nition of Ship Motions in Six Degrees of Freedom
The six ship motions in the steadily translating system are de…ned by:
² three translations of the ship’s center of gravity (CoG or G) in the direction of the
x-, y- and z-axes:
– surge in the longitudinal x-direction, positive forwards,
– sway in the lateral y-direction, positive to port side, and
– heave in the vertical z-direction, positive upwards.
² three rotations about these axes:
– roll about the x-axis, positive right turning,
– pitch about the y-axis, positive right turning, and
– yaw about the z-axis, positive right turning.
These de…nitions have been visualised in …gure 1.1.
1.2. PROBLEMS OF INTEREST 1-3
Any ship motion is build up from these basic motions. For instance, the vertical motion of
a bridge wing is mainly build up by heave, pitch and roll motions.
Another important motion is the vertical relative motion, de…ned as the vertical wave
elevation minus the local vertical motion of the ship. This is the motion that one observe
when looking over thee rail downwards to the waves.
1.2 Problems of Interest
This section gives a brief overview of …xed and mobile o¤shore units, such as dredgers,
pipe laying vessels, drilling vessels, oil production, storage and o¤-loading units and several
types of support and transportation vessels. Their aspects of importance or interest with
respect to the hydromechanical demands are discussed. For a more detailed description of
o¤shore structure problems reference is given to a particular Lecture on Ocean Engineering
by [Wichers, 1992]. Some relevant knowledge of that lecture has been used in this section
too.
1.2.1 Suction Dredgers
Dredging is displacement of soil, carried out under water. The earliest known dredging
activities by ‡oating equipment took place in the 14th century in the harbor of the Dutch
Hanze city of Kampen. A bucket-type dredging barge was used there to remove the in-
creasing sand deposits of the rivers Rhine and IJssel.
Generally, this work is carried out nowadays by cutter suction dredgers or trailing suction
hopper dredgers. The cutter suction dredger is moored by means of a spud pile or mooring
lines at the stern and by the ladder swing wires at the bow. These dredgers are often used
to dredge trenches for pipe lines and approach channels to harbors and terminals in hard
soil. The trailing suction hopper dredger is dynamically positioned; the dredger uses its
propulsion equipment to proceed over the track.
The environmental sea and weather conditions determine:
² the available working time in view of:
- the necessity to keep the digging tools in contact with the bottom, such as dippers,
grabs, cutters, suction pipes and trail heads,
- the anchorage problems in bad weather, such as breaking adrift from anchors and
bending or breaking of spud piles,
- the stability of the discharge equipment, such as ‡oating pipelines and conveyor
belts,
- the mooring and stability of barges alongside in the event of currents and/or high
wind velocities and waves and
- the overloading of structural elements associated with dredging such as bucket-
ladders or cutter arms,
² maneuverability, especially at strong side winds and strong currents entering at a
speci…c angle, which is important for the dredging slopes,
² problems on slamming of bottom doors of sea-going hopper barges and on jumping
suction pipes of hopper suction dredgers and
² hopper over‡ow losses due to excessive rolling of the vessel.
1-4 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Cutter suction dredgers are moored by means of a spud pile or radially spread steel wires.
An important feature of spud pile