NIFS PROC 88
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NIFS PROC 88


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= ky
n\u2dck
n0
\u3baTe
eB
\u3b3k \u2212 \u3c9kri
\u3c9\u2217k
= ky
n\u2dck
n0
\u3baTe
eB
(\u2212iAk exp i\u3b1k).
77
78 7 Di\ufb00usion of Plasma, Con\ufb01nement Time
Then the di\ufb00usion coe\ufb03cient may be obtained from (7.34) as follows:
D =
1
\u3bann0
Re(n\u2dckV\u2dc\u2212kx =
(\u2211
k
ky\u3b3k
\u3ban\u3c9
\u2217
k
\u2223\u2223\u2223\u2223 n\u2dckn0
\u2223\u2223\u2223\u22232
)
\u3baTe
eB
=
(\u2211
k
ky
\u3ban
Ak sin\u3b1k
\u2223\u2223\u2223\u2223 n\u2dckn0
\u2223\u2223\u2223\u22232
)
\u3baTe
eB
. (7.38)
The anomalous di\ufb00usion coe\ufb03cient due to \ufb02uctuation loss increases with time (from (7.35) and
(7.38)) and eventually the term with the maximum growth rate \u3b3k > 0 becomes dominant.
However, the amplitude |n\u2dck| will saturate due to nonlinear e\ufb00ects; the saturated amplitude will
be of the order of
|n\u2dck| \u2248 |\u2207n0|\u394x \u2248 \u3ban
kx
n0,
where \u394x is the correlation length of the \ufb02uctuation in the direction of x and the inverse of the
propagation constant kx in the x direction. Then (7.35) becomes
D =
\u3b3k
\u3ba2n
\u2223\u2223\u2223\u2223 n\u2dckn0
\u2223\u2223\u2223\u22232 \u2248 \u3b3kk2x \u2248 (\u394x)2\u3b3k \u2248 (\u394x)
2
\u3c4c
, (7.39)
where \u3c4c is the autocorrelation time of the \ufb02uctuation and is nearly equal to the inverse of \u3b3k in
the saturation stage of the \ufb02uctuation.
When the nondimensional coe\ufb03cient inside the parentheses in (7.38) is at its maximum of 1/16,
we have the Bohm di\ufb00usion coe\ufb03cient
DB =
1
16
\u3baTe
eB
. (7.40)
It appears that (7.40) give the largest possible di\ufb00usion coe\ufb03cient.
When the density and potential \ufb02uctuations n\u2dck, \u3c6\u2dck are measured, V\u2dc k can be calculated, and
the estimated outward particle \ufb02ux \u393 and di\ufb00usion coe\ufb03cient D can be compared to the values
obtained by experiment. As the relation of n\u2dck and \u3c6\u2dck is given by (7.37), the phase di\ufb00erence will
indicate whether \u3c9k is real (oscillatory mode) or \u3b3k > 0 (growing mode), so that this equation is
very useful in interpreting experimental results.
Let us take an example of the \ufb02uctuation driven by ion temperature gradient drift instability
(refer to sec.8.6). The mode is described by
\u3c6(r, \u3b8, z) =
\u2211
\u3c6mn(r) exp(\u2212im\u3b8 + inz/R).
The growth rate of the \ufb02uctuation has the maximum at around k\u3b8 = (\u2212i/r)\u2202/\u2202\u3b8 = \u2212m/r of
(ref.[4],[5])
|k\u3b8| = m
r
\u223c \u3b1\u3b8
\u3c1i
, \u3b1\u3b8 = 0.7 \u223c 0.8.
Then the correlation length \u394\u3b8 in \u3b8 direction is \u394\u3b8 \u223c \u3c1i/\u3b1\u3b8 (\u3c1i is ion Larmor radius).
The propagation constant k\u2016 along the line of magnetic force near the rational surface q(rm) =
m/n is
k\u2016 = \u2212ib · \u2207 =
B\u3b8
B
(\u2212m
r
)
+
Bt
B
(
n
R
)
\u2248 1
R
(
n\u2212 m
q(r)
)
=
m
rR
rq\u2032
q2
(r \u2212 rm) = s
Rq
k\u3b8(r \u2212 rm)
where q(r) \u2261 (r/R)(Bt/B\u3b8) is the safety factor (B\u3b8 and Bt are poloidal and toroidal \ufb01elds,
respectively) and s is the shear parameter (refer to Section 8.3c) s \u2261 rq\u2032/q. |k\u2016| is larger than
78
7.3 Fluctuation Loss, Bohm, Gyro-Bohm Di\ufb00usion, and Stationary · · · 79
Fig.7.4 In the upper \ufb01gure, the radial width of eigenmode \u394r is larger than the radial separation of the
rational surfaces \u394rm. A semi-global eigenmode structure \u394rg takes place due to the mode couplings. In
the lower \ufb01gure, the radial width of eigenmode \u394r is smaller than the radial separation of the rational
surfaces \u394rm. The modes with the radial width \u394r are independent of each other.
the inverse of the connection length qR of torus and is less than the inverse of, say, the pressure
gradient scale Lp, that is
1
qR
< |k\u2016| <
1
Lp
.
The radial width \u394r = |r \u2212 rm| of the mode near the rational surface r = rm is roughly expected
to be \u394r = |r\u2212 rm| = (Rq/s)(k\u2016/k\u3b8) = (\u3c1i/s\u3b1\u3b8) \u223c O(\u3c1i/s). The more accurate radial width of the
eigenmode of ion temperature gradient driven drift turbulence is given by (ref.[5][6])
\u394r = \u3c1i
(
qR
sLp
)1/2 (
\u3b3k
\u3c9kr
)1/2
.
The radial separation length \u394rm of the adjacent rational surface rm and rm+1 is
q\u2032\u394rm = q(rm+1)\u2212 q(rm) = m+ 1
n
\u2212 m
n
=
1
n
, \u394rm =
1
nq\u2032
=
m/n
rq\u2032
r
m
\u223c 1
sk\u3b8
.
When the mode width \u394r is larger than the radial separation of the rational surface \u394rm, the
di\ufb00erent modes are overlapped and the toroidal mode coupling takes place (see \ufb01g.7.4). The half
width \u394rg of the envelope of coupled modes is estimated to be (ref.[6]-[8])
\u394rg =
(
\u3c1iLp
s
)1/2
.
The radial correlation length becomes the large value of \u394rg (\u394rg/\u394r \u223c (Lp/\u3c1i)1/2) and the radial
propagation constant becomes kr \u223c 1/\u394rg. In this case, the di\ufb00usion coe\ufb03cient D is
D = (\u394rg)2\u3b3k \u223c \u3c1iLp
s
\u3c9\u2217k \u223c
T
eB
\u3b1\u3b8
s
.
where \u3c9\u2217k is the drift frequency (sec.8.6, sec.9.2). This coe\ufb03cient is of the Bohm type.
When the mode width \u394r is less than \u394rm (weak shear case), there is no coupling between
di\ufb00erent modes and the radial correlation length is
\u394r = \u3c1i
(
qR
sLp
)1/2
.
79
80 7 Di\ufb00usion of Plasma, Con\ufb01nement Time
Fig.7.5 Magnetic surface \u3c8 = const. and electric-\ufb01eld equipotential \u3c6 = const. The plasma moves along
the equipotential surfaces by virtue of E ×B.
The di\ufb00usion coe\ufb03cient D in this case is
D \u223c (\u394r)2\u3c9\u2217k \u223c \u3c12i
(
qR
sLp
)(
k\u3b8T
eBLp
)
\u223c T
eB
\u3c1i
Lp
(
\u3b1\u3b8qR
sLp
)
\u221d T
eB
\u3c1i
Lp
. (7.41)
This is called gyro-Bohm type di\ufb00usion coe\ufb03cient. It may be expected that the transport in toroidal
systems becomes small in the weak shear region of negative shear con\ufb01guration near the minimum
q position (refer to sec.16.7).
Stationary Convective Loss
Next, let us consider stationary convective losses across the magnetic \ufb02ux. Even if \ufb02uctuations in
the density and electric \ufb01eld are not observed at a \ufb01xed position, it is possible that the plasma can
move across the magnetic \ufb01eld and continuously escape. When a stationary electric \ufb01eld exists and
the equipotential surfaces do not coincide with the magnetic surfaces \u3c6 = const., the E ×B drift
is normal to the electric \ufb01eld E, which itself is normal to the equipotential surface. Consequently
the plasma drifts along the equipotential surfaces (see \ufb01g.7.5) which cross the magnetic surfaces.
The resultant loss is called stationary convective loss. The particle \ufb02ux is given by
\u393k = n0
Ey
B
. (7.42)
The losses due to di\ufb00usion by binary collision are proportional to B\u22122; but \ufb02uctuation or convective
losses are proportional to B\u22121. Even if the magnetic \ufb01eld is increased, the loss due to \ufb02uctuations
does not decrease rapidly.
7.4 Loss by Magnetic Fluctuation
When the magnetic \ufb01eld in a plasma \ufb02uctuates, the lines of magnetic force will wander radially.
Denote the radial shift of the \ufb01eld line by \u394r and the radial component of magnetic \ufb02uctuation
\u3b4B by \u3b4Br respectively. Then we \ufb01nd
\u394r =
\u222b L
0
brdl,
where br = \u3b4Br/B and l is the length along the line of magnetic force. The ensemble average of
(\u394r)2 is given by
\u3008(\u394r)2\u3009 =
\u2329\u222b L
0
br dl
\u222b L
0
br dl\u2032
\u232a
=
\u2329\u222b L
0
dl
\u222b L
0
dl\u2032 br(l) br(l\u2032)
\u232a
=
\u2329\u222b L
0
dl
\u222b L\u2212l
\u2212l
ds br(l) br(l + s)
\u232a
\u2248 L
\u2329
b2r
\u232a
lcorr,
where lcorr is
lcorr =
\u2329\u222b\u221e
\u2212\u221e br(l) br(l + s) ds
\u232a
\u3008b2r\u3009
.
80
References 81
If electrons run along the lines of magnetic force with the velocity vTe, the di\ufb00usion coe\ufb03cient De
of electrons becomes (ref.[9])
De =
\u3008(\u394r)2\u3009
\u394t
=
L
\u394t
\u3008b2r\u3009lcorr = vTelcorr
\u2329(
\u3b4Br
B
)2\u232a
. (7.43)
We may take lcorr \u223c R in the case of tokamak and lcorr \u223c a in the case of reverse \ufb01eld pinch (RFP,
refer sec.17.1).
References
[1] D. P\ufb01rsh and A. Schlu¨ter: MPI/PA/7/62, Max-Planck Institute fu¨r Physik und Astrophysik Mu¨nchen
(1962).
[2] A. A. Galeev and R. Z. Sagdeev: Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 233 (1968).
[3] B. B. Kadomtsev and O. P. Pogutse: Nucl. Fusion 11, 67 (1971).
F. L. Hinton and R. D. Hazeltine: Rev. Modern Phys. 48 239 (1976).
[4] W. Horton: Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1269 (1976).
[5] S. Hamaguchi and W. Horton: Phys. Fluids B4, 319 (1992).
[6] W. Horton, Jr., R. Esres, H. Kwak, and D.-I. Choi: Phys. Fluids 21, 1366 (1978).
[7] F. Romanelli and F. Zonca: Phys. Fluids B5, 4081 (1993).
J. Y. Kim and M. Wakatani: Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2200 (1994).
[8] Y. Kishimoto,