Enciclopédia da Energia Natural   CPMA.COMUNIDADES.NET
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Enciclopédia da Energia Natural CPMA.COMUNIDADES.NET


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University, University Park, PA, USA
R Kemp
Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
M Khanna
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana,
IL, USA
K A Kiel
College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA, USA
T C Kinnaman
Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA
H Klemick
National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
D Kling
University of California, Davis, CA, USA
T J Kniesner
Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA; IZA, Bonn,
Germany
B Kristro¨m
CERE, SLU, Umea\u2da, Sweden
K Kroetz
University of California, Davis, CA, USA
S Kroll
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
H Kunreuther
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
J Ladenburg
KORA, Danish Institute for Local and Regional
Government Research, Copenhagen, Denmark
Y-B Lai
National Chengchi University, Taipei City, Taiwan,
Republic of China
A Lange
University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
E Lanzi
OECD, Paris, France
K Lawlor
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
J D Leeth
Bentley University, Waltham, MA, USA
E Lichtenberg
University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
M Liski
Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland
Contributors xi
C Liston-Heyes
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
M J Livingston
US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA
K-G Lo¨fgren
Umea\u2da University, Umea\u2da, Sweden
A Lo¨schel
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW),
Mannheim, Germany; University of Heidelberg,
Heidelberg, Germany
D Lund
University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, Norway
T Lundgren
SLU/Umea\u2da University, Umea\u2da, Sweden
P-O Marklund
SLU/Umea\u2da University, Umea\u2da, Sweden
E Massetti
Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
G E Metcalf
Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA; NBER, Cambridge,
MA, USA
T O Michielsen
Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands
K T Midthun
SINTEF Technology and Society, Trondheim, Norway
D L Millimet
Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, USA; IZA,
Bonn, Germany
K Millock
Paris School of Economics, CNRS, Paris, France
C A Montgomery
Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
B C Murray
Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
G F Nemet
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA
V S Nørstebø
SINTEF Technology and Society, Trondheim, Norway
R Oonsie Biggs
Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden
D A Ovando
University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA
D P Parker
The University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA
G M Parkhurst
Weber State University, Ogden, UT, USA
I Parry
International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC, USA
G R Parsons
University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA
C Pasurka
US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,
DC, USA
A Pfaff
Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
P Plo¨tz
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research,
Karlsruhe, Germany
S Polasky
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA
S Pontoglio
European Research Council, Brussels
A Randall
University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
J M Reilly
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,
MA, USA
M N Reimer
University of California, Davis, CA, USA
T Requate
Kiel University, Kiel, Germany
A Riddle
Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, USA
E J Z Robinson
University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
R S Rosenberger
Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
N Ross
University of California, Davis, CA, USA
J A Roumasset
University of Hawai\u2019i, Honolulu, HI, USA
J Rubin
University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
J N Sanchirico
University of California, Davis, CA, USA; Resources for
the Future, Washington, DC, USA
B Scarborough
Property and Environment Research Center (PERC),
Bozeman, MT, USA
xii Contributors
M Schymura
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW),
Mannheim, Germany
R A Sedjo
Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, USA
K Segerson
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
K Seyboth
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK),
Potsdam, Germany; IPCC Working Group III
W D Shaw
Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
J P Shimshack
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA
J F Shogren
University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA
J S Shortle
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
E O Sills
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
S Siriwardena
University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
A Skonhoft
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
(NTNU), Trondheim, Norway
E C Smith
The Nature Conservancy, Cold Springs Harbor, NY, USA
P So¨derholm
Lulea\u2da University of Technology, Lulea\u2da, Sweden
D Squires
National Marine Fisheries Service, La Jolla, CA, USA;
University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
S L Stafford
College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, USA
J K Stranlund
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
C Streck
Climate Focus, Washington, DC, USA
S K Swallow
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
J Swierzbinski
University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
L O Taylor
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
W N Thurman
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
A Tomasgard
Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Trondheim, Norway
C Traeger
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
N Treich
Toulouse School of Economics (LERNA and IDEI),
Toulouse, France
M Troell
The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm,
Sweden
E van der Werf
Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
G C van Kooten
University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
N Van Long
McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
D van Soest
VUUniversity Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;
Tilburg University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
C A Wada
University of Hawai\u2019i, Honolulu, HI, USA
F Wagener
Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The
Netherlands
G Wagner
Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY, USA;
Columbia University\u2019s School of International and Public
Affairs, New York, NY, USA
M Walls
Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, USA
L Wangler
Institut fu¨r Innovation und Technik (iit), Berlin,
Germany
L R Watson
Property and Environment Research Center (PERC),
Bozeman, MT, USA
H-P Weikard
Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
D Weisbach
University of Chicago Law School, Chicago, IL, USA
A S Werner
SINTEF Technology and Society, Trondheim, Norway
Contributors xiii
J C Whitehead
Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA
J E Wilen
University of California, Davis, CA, USA
C Withagen
VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J R Wollscheid
University of Arkansas-Fort Smith, Fort Smith,
AR, USA
A Wolverton
National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,
DC, USA
N D Woods
University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
A Xepapadeas
Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens,
Greece
H Yoon
University of California, Davis, CA, USA
xiv Contributors
CONTENTS
Editorial Board v
Editor Biographies vii
Contributors ix
Preface xxiii
How to use the Encyclopedia xxiv
VOLUME 1
ENERGY
Climate Change and Policy 1
Carbon Cap and Trade 1
G Wagner
Carbon Offsets 6
G C van Kooten and F P de Vries
Carbon Taxes 9
G E Metcalf and D Weisbach
Clean Development Mechanism 15
K Millock
Climate Change and Food Situation 22
E Blanc and J M Reilly
Dealing with the Uncertainty About Climate Change 30
G Howard
Double Dividend 37
W K Jaeger
Economics of Forest Carbon Sequestration as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy 41
B C Murray
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 48
O Edenhofer and K Seyboth
International Climate Treaties and Coalition Building 57
C Carraro and E Massetti
Markets/Technology Innovation/Adoption/Diffusion