Object Oriented Software Construction - Bertrand Meyer
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Object Oriented Software Construction - Bertrand Meyer


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field \u2014 thanks in part to the incomplete but undeniable spread
nology. Too many books and articles on software engineering still start with
 lament about the \u201csoftware crisis\u201d and the pitiful state of our industry as
true
 engineering disciplines (which, as we all know, never mess things up).
ason for such doom. Oh, we still have a long, long way to go, as anyone who
 products knows all too well. But given the challenges that we face we have
e ashamed of ourselves as a profession; and we are getting better all the time.
tion of this book, as it was of its predecessor, to help in this process.
ond edition is not an update but the result of a thorough reworking. Not a
the original version has been left untouched. (Hardly a single line, actually.)
w topics have been added, including a whole chapter on concurrency,
client-server computing and Internet programming; another on persistence
; one on user interfaces; one on the software lifecycle; many design patterns
ntation techniques; an in-depth exploration of a methodological issue on
 available in the literature, how to use inheritance well and avoid misusing
s of many other topics of object-oriented methodology; an extensive
f the theory of abstract data types \u2014 the mathematical basis for our subject,
 to a complete understanding of object technology yet seldom covered in
tbooks and tutorials; a presentation of O-O analysis; hundreds of new
 and Web site references; the description of a complete object-oriented
environment (also included on the accompanying CD-ROM for the reader\u2019s
nd of the underlying concepts; and scores of new ideas, principles, caveats,
 figures, examples, comparisons, citations, classes, routines.
ctions to OOSC-1 have been so rewarding that I know readers have high
 I hope they will find OOSC-2 challenging, useful, and up to their standards.
B.M.
January 1997
PREFACExiv
About the accompanying CD-ROM
The CD-ROM that comes with this book contains the entire hyperlinked text in Adobe
Acrobat format. It also includes Adobe\u2019s Acrobat Reader software, enabling you to read
that format; 
have Acroba
The author a
associated to
book, and an
Adobe abou
To get starte
directory, w
open that fi
computer, ex
directory.
The presenc
take advanta
Wide Web\u201d
to follow the
the book alll
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you may wi
All links (c
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Acrobat Rea
minus-sign (
Acrobat Rea
Bibliograph
form, so tha
bibliography
The CD-RO
\u2022 Library
\u2022 A cha
mathem
In addition,
oriented de
chapter 36, 
throughout t
system requ
the versions provided cover major industry platforms. If you do not already
t Reader on your computer, you can install it by following the instructions.
nd the publisher make no representations as to any property of Acrobat and
ols; the Acrobat Reader is simply provided as a service to readers of this
y Acrobat questions should be directed to Adobe. You may also check with
t any versions of the Reader that may have appeared after the book.
d with the CD-ROM, open the Acrobat file README.pdf in the OOSC-2
hich will direct you to the table of contents and the index. You can only
le under Acrobat Reader; if the Reader has not been installed on your
amine instead the plain-text version in the file readme.txt in the top-level
e of an electronic version will be particularly useful to readers who want to
ge of the thousands of cross-references present in this book (see \u201cA Book-
, page viii). Although for a first sequential reading you will probably prefer
 paper version, having the electronic form available on a computer next to
ows you to follow a link once in a while without having to turn pages back
e electronic form is particularly convenient for a later reading during which
sh to explore links more systematically.
ross-references) appear in blue in the Acrobat form, as illustrated twice
ot visible in the printed version). To follow a link, just click on the blue part.
nce is to another chapter, the chapter will appear in a new window. The
der command to come back to the previous position is normally Control-
that is, type \u2013 while holding down the CONTROL key). Consult the on-line
der documentation for other useful navigational commands.
ical references also appear as links, such as [Knuth 1968], in the Acrobat
t you can click on any of them to see the corresponding entry in the
 of appendix E.
M also contains:
 components providing extensive material for Appendix A.
pter from the manual for a graphical application builder, providing
atical complements to the material of chapter 32.
 the CD-ROM includes a time-limited version of an advanced object-
velopment environment for Windows 95 or Windows NT, as described in
providing an excellent hands-on opportunity to try out the ideas developed
he book. The \u201cReadme\u201d file directs you to the installation instructions and
irements.
Acknowledgments: The preparation of the hyperlinked text was made possible by the help of several people
at Adobe Inc., in particular Sandra Knox, Sarah Rosenbaum and the FrameMaker Customer Support Group.
PREFACE xvii
On the bibliography, Internet sources and 
exercises
This book re
discussion of
\u201cBibliographi
to understand
Referen
and refer to th
not intended t
Name denote
of the bibliog
Aside fr
the paragraph
bibliography 
and related to
not imply an
assessment of
Although ele
years from no
Internet-relate
Usenet newsg
Electron
of the quoted
several years.
difficulty, no
tools can help
Most chapter
providing solu
may regret th
three reasons
realization tha
answer; and th
book as a tex
The bibliography 
starts on page 
1203.
lies on earlier contributions by many authors. To facilitate reading, the
 sources appears in most cases not in the course of the discussion, but in the
cal notes\u201d sections at chapter end. Make sure you read these sections, so as
 the origin of many ideas and results and find out where to learn more. 
ces are of the form [Name 19xx], where Name is the name of the first author,
e bibliography in appendix E. This convention is for readability only and is
o underrate the role of authors other than the first. The letter M in lieu of a
s publications by the author of this book, listed separately in the second part
raphy. 
om the bibliography proper, some references appear in the margin, next to
s which cite them. The reason for this separate treatment is to make the
usable by itself, as a collection of important references on object technology
pics. Appearance as a margin reference rather than in the bibliography does
y unfavorable judgment of value; the division is simply a pragmatic
 what belongs in a core list of object-oriented references. 
***
ctronic references will undoubtedly be considered a matter of course a few
w, this must be one of the first technical books (other than books devoted to
d topics) to make extensive use of references to World-Wide-Web pages,
roups and other Internet resources.
ic addresses are notoriously volatile. I have tried to obtain from the authors
 sources some reassurance that the addresses given would remain valid for
 Neither they nor I, of course, can provide an absolute guarantee. In case of
te that on the Net more things move than disappear: keyword-based search
.
***
s include exercises of various degrees of difficulty. I have refrained from
tions, although many exercises do contain fairly precise hints. Some readers
e absence of full solutions; I hope, however, that they will appreciate the
 that led to this decision: the fear of spoiling the reader\u2019s enjoyment; the
t many exercises are design problems, for which there is more than one good
e desire to provide a source of ready-made problems to instructors using this
t.
***
PREFACExviii
For brevity and simplicity, the text follows the imperfect but long-established tradition of
using words such as