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7.7.3 NTU methd for design of heat exchangers
7.7.4 F-factor method for design of heat exchangers
8 MASS TRANSFER MODELS
Table 8.2.3-1 Equivalent forms of Fick's Law
8.3 Convective Mass Transfer Models
Height of transfer unit models
8.7 Design of Mass Transfer Columns
8.8 Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction
APPENDIX A: VECTOR AND TENSOR OPERATIONS
APPENDIX C: NOMENCLATURE
INDEX
517 =
530 =
536 =
574 =
581 =
629
630
638 =
651
667 -
675 =
719 =
734 =
741 =
759 -
760 =
806 =
822 =
843 =
860
882 =
903 =
923 -
963 =
989 =
997 -
1009 =
Preface
Thumb Index
1 ESSENTIALS
1.1 Models
Figure 1.1- 1 Modeling the weather
Figure 1.1-2 A poor model of the weather
1.1.1 Mathematical models and the real world
1.1.2 Scale of the model
1.2 The Entity Balance
Example 1.2-1 An entity balance
1.2.1 Conserved quantities
1.2.2 S teady-state processes
1.3 The Continuum Assumption
1.4 Fluid Behavior
Figure 1.3-1 Breakdown of continuum assumption
1.4.1 Laminar and turbulent flow
1.4.2 Newtonian fluids
Figure 1.4.1-1 Injection of dye in pipe flow
Figure 1.4.2- 1 Shear between layers of fluid
Figure 1.4.2-2 Momentum transfer between layers of fluid
Figure 1.4.2-3 Sign convention for momentum flux between
layers of fluid
Figure 1.4.2-4 Sign convention for shear stress on surface
layers of fluid
Table 1.4.2- 1 Summary of sign convention for
stresslmomentum flux tensor
Figure 1.4.2-5 Migration of momentum by molecular motion
Figure 1.4.2-6 Viscosity of common fluids
Example I .4.2-1 Flow offluids between frxed parallel
plates
1.4.3 Complex fluids
Figure 1.4.3-1 Complex fluids
Figure 1.4.3-2 Mechanical analog of viscoelasticity
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1.4.4 Compressible vs. incompressible flows
1.5.1 General cone t of average
Figure 1.5.1-1 Time-average speed for travel between two
points
Figure 1.5.1-2 Distance-average speed for travel between two
points
1.5 Averages
Example I . P .1 - I Time-average vs distance-average speed
1.5.2 Velocity averages
Area-averaged velocity
Example 1.5.2-1 Area-averuged velocity for luminar pipe
POW
Figure 1.5.2-1 Velocity profile
Time-averaged velocity
Exumple 1.5.2-2 Time-uveraged velocity for turbulent
POW
Example 1.5.2-3 Area-averuge of time-averaged velocity
for turbulent pipe flow
1.5.3 Temperature averages
Example 1.5.3-1 Area-uverage temperuture vs. bulk
temperature
Example 1.5.3-2 Bulk temperuture for quadratic
temperuture profile, laminar pipe flow
Example 1.5.4-1 Bulk concentration
Example I S.5-1 Case examples of logarithmic mean
Example 1.5.5-2 Approximation of logarithmic mean by
urithmetic mean
1.5.4 Concentration averages
1.5.5 Arithmetic, logarithmic, and geometric means
1.6 Scalars, Vectors, Tensors and Coordinate Systems
1.6.1 The viscous stress tensor
Components of the viscous stress tensor
Figure 1.6.1-1 (a) Vectors associated by a particukv viscous
stress tensor with the direction of the rectangular Cartesian
axes
Figure 1.6.1-1 (b) Vector associated with the 3-direction
decomposed into its components
1.6.2 Types of derivatives
Partial derivative
Total derivative
Substantial derivative, material derivative, derivative following the
motion
Example 1.6.2-1 Rute of change of pollen density
1.6.3 Transport theorem
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Figure 1.6.3-1 Motion of continuum
Chapter 1 Problems
2 THE MASS BALANCES
2.1 The Macroscopic Mass Balances
Figure 2.1 - 1 System for mass balances
2.1.1 The macroscopic total mass balance
Accumulation of mass
Input and output of mass
Simplified forms of the macroscopic total mass balance
Example 2.1.1-1 Mass balance on a surge tank
Figure 2.1.1 - 1 Surge tank
Example 2.1.1 -2 Volumetricjlow rate offluid in laminar
flow in circular pipe
Example 2. I . 1-3 Air storage tank
Example 2. I . 1-4 Water manifold
2.1.2 The macroscopic species mass balance
Generation of mass of a species
Accumulation of mass of a species
Input and output of mass of a species
Example 2.1.2-1 Macroscopic species mass balance with
zero -0 rde r irreversible reaction
Example 2. I .2-2 Macroscopic species mass balance with
.first-order irreversible reaction
Figure 2.1.2-1 Perfectly mixed tank with reaction
2.2.1 The microscopic total mass balance (continuity equation)
Special cases of the continuity equation
Continuity equation in different coordinate systems
2.2 The Microscopic Mass Balances
Table 2.2.1-1 Continuity equation (microscopic total mass
balance) in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate
tiames
Example 2.2. I -I Velocity components in two-dimensional
steady incompressible jlow, rectangular coordinates
Example 2.2.1-2 Velocity components in two-dimensional
steady incompressible jlow, cylindrical coordinates
Example 2.2.1-3 Compression of air
Figure 2.2.1-1 Air compression by pisiston
2.2.2 The microscopic species mass balance
Diffusion
Chapter 2 Problems
3 THE ENERGY BALANCES
3.1 The Macroscopic Energy Balances
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3.1.1 Forms of energy
3.1.2 The macroscopic total energy balance
Rate of accumulation of energy
Rates of input and output of energy
Figure 3.1.2-1 Flow work
Simplified forms of the macroscopic total energy balance
The potential energy term
The kinetic energy term
The enthalpy term
Averages and the macroscopic energy equations
Energy balance approximation - turbulent flow
Energy balance approximation - laminar flow
Figure 3.1.2-2 Gravitational field of earth
S teady-state cases of the macroscopic total energy balance
Table 3.1.2- 1 Qualitative comparison of ranges of enthalpy
changes (kcal/mol) for processes involving organic
compounds
Example 3.1.2-1 Relative magnitudes of mechmical and
thermal energy terms with phase change
Figure 3.1.2-3 Mechanical energy and thermal energy terms
compared for a boiler (I)
Figure 3.1.24 Mechanical and thermal energy terms compared
for a boiler (U)
Example 3.1.2-2 Steam production in a boiler
Exunzple 3.1.2-3 Temperuture rise from conversion of
mechanical to thermal energy
Figure 3.1.2-5 Water supply system
Emmple 3.1.2-4 Heuted tank, steudy state in m s s und
unsteady state in energy
Figure 3.1.2-6 Heated tank
3 . 1 3 The macroscopic mechanical energy balance
Exumple 3.1.3-1 Mechunical energy and pole vaulting
Exumple 3.1.3-2 Culculution of lost work in pipe
Figure 3.1.3-1 Pipe system
3.1.4 The macroscopic thermal energy balance
3.2.1 The microscopic total energy balance
Eulerian forms of the microscopic total energy balance
Lagr'angian forms of the microscopic total energy balance
3.2.2 The microscopic mechanical energy balance
3.2.3 The microscopic thermal energy balance
3.2 The Microscopic Energy Balances
Chapter 3 Problems
4 THE MOMENTUM BALANCES
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