Fenômentos de Transporte
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Fenômentos de Transporte


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7.7.3 NTU methd for design of heat exchangers 
7.7.4 F-factor method for design of heat exchangers 
8 MASS TRANSFER MODELS 
Table 8.2.3-1 Equivalent forms of Fick's Law 
8.3 Convective Mass Transfer Models 
Height of transfer unit models 
8.7 Design of Mass Transfer Columns 
8.8 Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction 
APPENDIX A: VECTOR AND TENSOR OPERATIONS 
APPENDIX C: NOMENCLATURE 
INDEX 
517 = 
530 = 
536 = 
574 = 
581 = 
629 
630 
638 = 
651 
667 - 
675 = 
719 = 
734 = 
741 = 
759 - 
760 = 
806 = 
822 = 
843 = 
860 
882 = 
903 = 
923 - 
963 = 
989 = 
997 - 
1009 = 
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Preface 
Thumb Index 
1 ESSENTIALS 
1.1 Models 
Figure 1.1- 1 Modeling the weather 
Figure 1.1-2 A poor model of the weather 
1.1.1 Mathematical models and the real world 
1.1.2 Scale of the model 
1.2 The Entity Balance 
Example 1.2-1 An entity balance 
1.2.1 Conserved quantities 
1.2.2 S teady-state processes 
1.3 The Continuum Assumption 
1.4 Fluid Behavior 
Figure 1.3-1 Breakdown of continuum assumption 
1.4.1 Laminar and turbulent flow 
1.4.2 Newtonian fluids 
Figure 1.4.1-1 Injection of dye in pipe flow 
Figure 1.4.2- 1 Shear between layers of fluid 
Figure 1.4.2-2 Momentum transfer between layers of fluid 
Figure 1.4.2-3 Sign convention for momentum flux between 
layers of fluid 
Figure 1.4.2-4 Sign convention for shear stress on surface 
layers of fluid 
Table 1.4.2- 1 Summary of sign convention for 
stresslmomentum flux tensor 
Figure 1.4.2-5 Migration of momentum by molecular motion 
Figure 1.4.2-6 Viscosity of common fluids 
Example I .4.2-1 Flow offluids between frxed parallel 
plates 
1.4.3 Complex fluids 
Figure 1.4.3-1 Complex fluids 
Figure 1.4.3-2 Mechanical analog of viscoelasticity 
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1.4.4 Compressible vs. incompressible flows 
1.5.1 General cone t of average 
Figure 1.5.1-1 Time-average speed for travel between two 
points 
Figure 1.5.1-2 Distance-average speed for travel between two 
points 
1.5 Averages 
Example I . P .1 - I Time-average vs distance-average speed 
1.5.2 Velocity averages 
Area-averaged velocity 
Example 1.5.2-1 Area-averuged velocity for luminar pipe 
POW 
Figure 1.5.2-1 Velocity profile 
Time-averaged velocity 
Exumple 1.5.2-2 Time-uveraged velocity for turbulent 
POW 
Example 1.5.2-3 Area-averuge of time-averaged velocity 
for turbulent pipe flow 
1.5.3 Temperature averages 
Example 1.5.3-1 Area-uverage temperuture vs. bulk 
temperature 
Example 1.5.3-2 Bulk temperuture for quadratic 
temperuture profile, laminar pipe flow 
Example 1.5.4-1 Bulk concentration 
Example I S.5-1 Case examples of logarithmic mean 
Example 1.5.5-2 Approximation of logarithmic mean by 
urithmetic mean 
1.5.4 Concentration averages 
1.5.5 Arithmetic, logarithmic, and geometric means 
1.6 Scalars, Vectors, Tensors and Coordinate Systems 
1.6.1 The viscous stress tensor 
Components of the viscous stress tensor 
Figure 1.6.1-1 (a) Vectors associated by a particukv viscous 
stress tensor with the direction of the rectangular Cartesian 
axes 
Figure 1.6.1-1 (b) Vector associated with the 3-direction 
decomposed into its components 
1.6.2 Types of derivatives 
Partial derivative 
Total derivative 
Substantial derivative, material derivative, derivative following the 
motion 
Example 1.6.2-1 Rute of change of pollen density 
1.6.3 Transport theorem 
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Figure 1.6.3-1 Motion of continuum 
Chapter 1 Problems 
2 THE MASS BALANCES 
2.1 The Macroscopic Mass Balances 
Figure 2.1 - 1 System for mass balances 
2.1.1 The macroscopic total mass balance 
Accumulation of mass 
Input and output of mass 
Simplified forms of the macroscopic total mass balance 
Example 2.1.1-1 Mass balance on a surge tank 
Figure 2.1.1 - 1 Surge tank 
Example 2.1.1 -2 Volumetricjlow rate offluid in laminar 
flow in circular pipe 
Example 2. I . 1-3 Air storage tank 
Example 2. I . 1-4 Water manifold 
2.1.2 The macroscopic species mass balance 
Generation of mass of a species 
Accumulation of mass of a species 
Input and output of mass of a species 
Example 2.1.2-1 Macroscopic species mass balance with 
zero -0 rde r irreversible reaction 
Example 2. I .2-2 Macroscopic species mass balance with 
.first-order irreversible reaction 
Figure 2.1.2-1 Perfectly mixed tank with reaction 
2.2.1 The microscopic total mass balance (continuity equation) 
Special cases of the continuity equation 
Continuity equation in different coordinate systems 
2.2 The Microscopic Mass Balances 
Table 2.2.1-1 Continuity equation (microscopic total mass 
balance) in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate 
tiames 
Example 2.2. I -I Velocity components in two-dimensional 
steady incompressible jlow, rectangular coordinates 
Example 2.2.1-2 Velocity components in two-dimensional 
steady incompressible jlow, cylindrical coordinates 
Example 2.2.1-3 Compression of air 
Figure 2.2.1-1 Air compression by pisiston 
2.2.2 The microscopic species mass balance 
Diffusion 
Chapter 2 Problems 
3 THE ENERGY BALANCES 
3.1 The Macroscopic Energy Balances 
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3.1.1 Forms of energy 
3.1.2 The macroscopic total energy balance 
Rate of accumulation of energy 
Rates of input and output of energy 
Figure 3.1.2-1 Flow work 
Simplified forms of the macroscopic total energy balance 
The potential energy term 
The kinetic energy term 
The enthalpy term 
Averages and the macroscopic energy equations 
Energy balance approximation - turbulent flow 
Energy balance approximation - laminar flow 
Figure 3.1.2-2 Gravitational field of earth 
S teady-state cases of the macroscopic total energy balance 
Table 3.1.2- 1 Qualitative comparison of ranges of enthalpy 
changes (kcal/mol) for processes involving organic 
compounds 
Example 3.1.2-1 Relative magnitudes of mechmical and 
thermal energy terms with phase change 
Figure 3.1.2-3 Mechanical energy and thermal energy terms 
compared for a boiler (I) 
Figure 3.1.24 Mechanical and thermal energy terms compared 
for a boiler (U) 
Example 3.1.2-2 Steam production in a boiler 
Exunzple 3.1.2-3 Temperuture rise from conversion of 
mechanical to thermal energy 
Figure 3.1.2-5 Water supply system 
Emmple 3.1.2-4 Heuted tank, steudy state in m s s und 
unsteady state in energy 
Figure 3.1.2-6 Heated tank 
3 . 1 3 The macroscopic mechanical energy balance 
Exumple 3.1.3-1 Mechunical energy and pole vaulting 
Exumple 3.1.3-2 Culculution of lost work in pipe 
Figure 3.1.3-1 Pipe system 
3.1.4 The macroscopic thermal energy balance 
3.2.1 The microscopic total energy balance 
Eulerian forms of the microscopic total energy balance 
Lagr'angian forms of the microscopic total energy balance 
3.2.2 The microscopic mechanical energy balance 
3.2.3 The microscopic thermal energy balance 
3.2 The Microscopic Energy Balances 
Chapter 3 Problems 
4 THE MOMENTUM BALANCES 
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4.1 The Macroscopic Momentum Balance 
Example 4.1