1047 pág.

# Fenômentos de Transporte

DisciplinaFenômenos de Transporte I12.442 materiais111.599 seguidores
Pré-visualização50 páginas
```-1 Momentum flux offluid in laminar flow in
circular pipe
4.1.1 Types of forces
4.1.2 Influence of uniform pressure over entire surface of irregular
objects
Figure 4.1.2- 1 Approximation of solid by prisms
Figure 4.1.2-2 Detail of prism
4.1.3 Averages and the momentum equation
Momentum balance approximation - turbulent flow
Momentum balance approximation - laminar flow
Example 4.1.3-1 Force on a nozzle
Example 4.1.3-2 Thrust of aircru? engine
Example 4.1.3-3 Piping support
Example 4.1.3-4 Jet bout
Exclmple 4.1.3-5 Horizontal force on tunk
4.2 The Microscopic Momentum Balance
4.3 Summary of Balance Equations and Constitutive Relationships
4.4 The Momentum Equation in Non-Inertial Reference Frames
Chapter 4 Problems
Table 4.3-1 Tabulation of balance equations
Table 4.3-2 Tabulation of common constitutive relationships
5 APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONAL
ANALYSIS
5.1 Systems of Measurement
Example 5. I -I Weight vs. mass; g vs. g,
Table 5.1 - la Systems of Units
Table 5.1 - 1 b Systems of Units
Table 5.1-2 SI Prefixes
5.2 Buckingham's Theorem
Example 5.2-1 Dimensionless variables for pipe flow
5.2.1 Friction factors and drag coefficients
5.2.2 Shape factors
Example 5.2.2-1 Drag force on ship hull
Exumple 5.2.2-2 Deceleration of compressible fluid
5.3 Systematic Analysis of Variables
Example 5.3-1 Drag force on a sphere
Example 5.3-2 Dimensionless groups foraflow over u flut
plate
Example 5.3-3 Consistency of dimensionless groups across
system of dimensions
Example 5.3-4 Capillary interface height via dimensional
analysis
169
173
1 74
175
176
177
178
178
181
182
186
188
192
194
196
199
199
200
200
203
211
21 1
215
220
221
22 1
222
223
227
229
230
232
234
235
236
238
243
5.4 Dimensionless groups and differential models
Example 5.4-1 Pipe jlow of incompressible fluid with
constant viscosity
Example 5.4-2 One-dimensional energy transport
Example 5.4-3 Mass transport in a binary mixture
Example 5.4-4 Extrapolating m d e l results j?om one
category of momentum, heat, or m s s transport to another
Table 5.4- 1 Dimensionless variables
Table 5.4-2 Dedimensionalized balance equations
Table 5.4-3 Dimensionless numbers
5.5 Similarity, Models and Scaling
Example 5.5-1 Drag on immersed body
Example 5.5-2 Scale effects
Chapter 5 Problems
6 MOMENTUM TRANSFER IN FLUIDS
6.1 Fluid Statics
6.1.1 Manometers
Example 6.1.1 -1 Pressure difference using a manometer
Figure 6.1.1 - 1 Measurement of pressure difference with
manometer
Example 6.1.1-2 Pressure dinerence between tanks
Figure 6.1.1-2 Pressure difference between tanks
Example 6.1.1-3 Differential manometer
Figure 6.1.1-3 Differential manometer
Figure 6.2-1 Paths between streamlines
6.2 Description of Flow Fields
6.2.1 Irrotational flow
6.3 Potential Flow
Table 6.3-1 Elementary plane flows
Table 6.3-2 Superposition of elementary plane flows
Example 6.3-1 Flow around a circular cylinder
Example 6.3-2 Flow of an ideal jluid through a corner
Example 6.3-3 Flow around a rotating cylinder
Figure 6.3- 1 Flow around circular cylinder
Figure 6.3-2 Flow through a corner
6.4 Laminar Flow
6.4.1 Laminar flow between infinite parallel plates
Figure 6.4.1-1 Steady flow between infinite stationary parallel
plates
Example 6.4. I - I Steady flow between infinite parallel
plates
Figure 6.4.1-2 Flow between infinite parallel plates, top plate
moving at vo
245
249
2.50
252
2.53
260
26 1
262
264
266
268
272
281
281
284
284
284
285
285
286
286
288
29 1
292
295
302
304
307
308
309
310
31 I
314
315
315
31 8
3 19
Figure 6.4.1-3 Velocity profiles for laminar flow of
Newtonian fluid between parallel plates with imposed pressure
drop, top plate moving at steady velocity
Example 6.4.1-2 Flow between infinite rotating concentric
cylinders
6.4.2 Laminar flow in a circular pipe
Figure 6.4.2-1 Control volume for force balance on fluid in
Figwe 6.4.2-2 Velocity profile for laminar flow of a
Newtonian fluid in a pipe or duct of circular cross-section
Figure 6.4.2-3 Shear stress profile for laminar flow of a
Newtonian fluid in a pipe or duct of circular cross-section
Pipe
Example 6.4.2-1 Flow in a capillary viscometer
Example 6.4.2-2 Flow between two concentric cylinders
Example 6.4.2-3 Film jlow down U wall
Example 6.4.2-4 Flow adjacent to ujlat plate
instantuneously set in motion
Figure 6.4.2-4 Viscometric flow between cylinders
Figure 6.4.2-5 Film flow down wall
Figure 6.4.2-6 Flow adjacent to flat plate instantaneously set
in motion
6.5 Turbulent Flow
Figure 6.5-1 Local velocity in turbulent flow as a function of
time
Figure 6.5-2 Laminar and time-smoothed turbulent (1/7 power
model) velocity profiles in steady pipe flow
6.5.1 Time averaging the equations of change
Exumple 6.5-2 Time averaging of velocity product
6.5.2 The mixing length model
Figure 6.5.2-1 Mixing length model
Figure 6.5.2-2 Universal velocity distribution
Example 6.5.2-1 Size of sublayer and bu\$er tone in
turbulent jlow
6.6 The Boundary Layer Model
Figure 6.6-1 Boundaq layer development on flat plate
6.6.1 Momentum balance - integral equations
Figure 6.6.1-1 Element in boundary layer
Figure 6.6.1-2 Velocity profile development in the entrance
region to a pipe
6.6.2 De-dimensionalhation of tbe boundary layer equations
6.6.3 Exact solution of the momentum boundary layer equations via
similarity variables
Example 6.6-1 Displacement thickness
321
321
322
322
325
325
326
327
327
330
331
332
332
338
339
341
341
347
347
348
351
351
353
353
354
356
356
359
360
362
xviii Tuble of Contents
Example 6.6.3-1 Similarity vuriuble developed from
dimensional analysis
Example 6.6.3-2 Runge-Kuttu solution of Blusius problem
Figure 6.6.3-1 Solution to Blasius boundary layer equation
6.7 Drag Coefficients
Figure 6.7-1 Flow around an airfoil (a) without and (b) with
separation
6.7.1 Drag on immersed bodies (external flow)
Figure 6.7.1-1 Drag coefficient for smooth flat plate oriented
parallel to flow stream
Example 6.7.1-1 Drag on u flat plute
Figure 6.7.1-2 Flow past circular cylinder
Figure 6.7.1-3 Drag coefficient for circular cylinder
Figure 6.7.1-4 Drag coefficient for sphere
Exumple 6.7.1-2 Wind force on U distillation column
Exumpk 6.7.1-3 Ternziniil velocity of a polymer sphere in
water
6.7.2 Drag in conduits - pipes (internal flow)
Table 6.7.2- 1 Properties of pipe
Figure 6.7.2-1 Momentum balance on cylindrical fluid element
in horizontal pipe
Figure 6.7.2-2 Momentum balance on cylindrical fluid element
in non-horizontal pipe
Figure 6.7.2-3 Moody friction factor chart
Figure 6.7.2-4 Relative roughness for clean new pipes
Example 6.7.2-1 Expunsion losses
Figure 6.7.2-5 Equivalent lengths for losses in pipes
Example 6.7.2-2 Direction o f f o w between tunks at
differing pressures und heights
Exmzple 6.7.2-3 Friction loss in (I piping system
Case 1: Pressure drop unknown
Exumple 6.7.2-4 Pressure loss for flow between tunks
Case 2: Diameter unknown
Example 6.7.2-5 Transfer line from tank to column
Example 6.7.2-6 Minimum pipe diameter
Exumple 6.7.2-7 Air supply through hose
Emrnple 6.7.2-8 Flow rute unknown
Example 6.7.2-9 Culculution o f f o w rute via Kurmun
number when pressure drop is known
Friction factor calculations - serial paths
Case 3: Length unknown
Case 4: Flow rate unknown
Figure 6.7.2-6 Friction factor vs. Karman number
Non-circular```