douglas fluid mechanics 5th txtbk
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douglas fluid mechanics 5th txtbk

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The fifth edition of this established text provides an excellent and
comprehensive treatment of fluid mechanics that is concisely
written and supported by good worked examples.

Fluid Mechanics has become a textbook of choice with both students and
lecturers, due to its:

FLUID MECHANICS
FIFTH EDITION

FLU
ID

M
EC

H
A

N
IC

S

DOUGLAS

GASIOREK

SWAFFIELD

JACK

FIFTH
EDITION

This revision of a classic text presents relevant material for mechanical and
civil engineers, as well as energy and environmental services engineers.
It recognises the evolution of the subject and provides thorough coverage of
both established theory and emerging topics.

Excellent coverage
\u2022 All the latest developments and applications, including emerging

specialisms
\u2022 Strong coverage of the principles of fluid flow \u2013 fundamentals emphasized

early in the text

Emphasis on understanding
\u2022 Good, clear explanations, together with extensive worked examples and

tutorials \u2013 brought together to reinforce the reader\u2019s understanding of all
the key principles

Helpful resources on accompanying website
\u2022 With solutions to tutorials and simulations of fluid mechanics, presented

through some 20 programs, all fully discussed in the text

\u2022 New chapters on the impact of environmental change and the fluid
mechanics required to both understand the consequences of climate
change and develop renewable energy technologies

\u2022 Updated chapter on dimensional analysis
\u2022 Updated solutions manual
\u2022 Extended website to include enhanced and additional simulations

Fluid Mechanics is ideal for use throughout a first degree course in all
engineering disciplines where a good understanding of the subject is required.
It is also suitable for conversion MSc courses requiring a fundamental treatment
of fluid mechanics and will be a valuable resource for specialist Continuing
Professional Development courses, including those offered by Distance Learning.

Authors

Dr John Douglas,
formerly of South Bank
University, London.

Dr Janusz Gasiorek,
formerly of South Bank
University, London where he
led the Fluid Mechanics
group in Mechanical
Engineering, with specialist
research interest in
rotodynamic machinery and
fan engineering.

Professor John Swaffield,
Heriot\u2013Watt University, has
taught fluid mechanics for
30 years with specialist
research in pressure
transients, free surface
unsteady flows and water
conservation.

Dr Lynne Jack,
Heriot\u2013Watt University,
senior lecturer in energy
systems and associated
environmental impacts,
with research interests in
unsteady flow modelling and
the implications for the
built environment of climate
change.

www.pearson-books.com

Building on the success of previous editions, this fifth edition introduces
the following new features:

COVER IMAGE: MARINE CURRENT

TURBINES TM LTD

John F. Douglas

Janusz M. Gasiorek

John A. Swaffield

Lynne B. Jack
Additional student support at
www.pearsoned.co.uk/douglas

0131292935_COVER 9/8/05 3:07 PM Page 1

Fluid Mechanics

Visit the

Fluid Mechanics

, fifth edition Companion Website at

www.pearsoned.co.uk/douglas

 to find valuable

student

learning material including:

l

Simulations and computer programs for students, with
clear instructions on how to use them to enhance study

FM5_A01.fm Page i Friday, November 17, 2006 4:43 PM

We work with leading authors to develop the
strongest educational materials in engineering,

bringing cutting-edge thinking and best learning

practice to a global market.

Under a range of well-known imprints, including

Prentice Hall, we craft high quality print and

electronic publications which help readers to

understand and apply their content, whether

studying or at work.

To find out more about the complete range of our

publishing please visit us on the World Wide Web at:

www.pearsoned.co.uk

FM5_A01.fm Page ii Friday, November 17, 2006 4:43 PM

Fluid Mechanics

Fifth edition

J

OHN

 F. D

OUGLAS

M.Sc., Ph.D., A.C.G.I., D.I.C., C.Eng., M.I.C.E., M.I.Mech.E.
Formerly of London South Bank University

J

ANUSZ

 M. G

ASIOREK

B.Sc., Ph.D., C.Eng., M.I.Mech.E., M.C.I.B.S.E.
Formerly of London South Bank University

J

OHN

 A. S

WAFFIELD

F.R.S.E., B.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D., C.Eng., M.R.Ae.S., F.C.I.W.E.M., F.C.I.B.S.E.
William Watson Professor of Building Engineering and Head of the School
of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh

L

YNNE

 B. J

ACK

B.Eng., Ph.D., M.I.L.T.
Senior Lecturer in Environmental Engineering, School of the Built
Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh

FM5_A01.fm Page iii Friday, November 17, 2006 4:43 PM

Pearson Education Limited

Edinburgh Gate

Harlow

Essex CM20 2JE

England

and Associated Companies throughout the world

Visit us on the World Wide Web at:

www.pearsoned.co.uk

First published by Pitman Publishing Limited 1979

Second Edition 1985

Third Edition published under the Longman imprint 1995

Fourth Edition 2001

Fifth Edition 2005

© J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gasiorek and J. A. Swaffield 1979, 2001

© J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gasiorek, J. A. Swaffield and Lynne B. Jack 2005

The rights of J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gasiorek, J. A. Swaffield and Lynne B. Jack

to be identified as authors of this Work have been asserted in accordance

with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored

in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,

mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior

written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying

in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd,

90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP.

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-129293-2

ISBN-10: 0-13-129293-5

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Fluid mechanics / John F. Douglas ... [et al.].\u2014 5th ed.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

1. Fluid mechanics. I. Douglas, John F.

 TA357.D68 2006

 620.1\u201906\u2014dc22

2005054617

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10 09 08 07 06

Set by 35 in 10/12pt Times Roman

Printed and bound by Ashford Colour Press Ltd, Gosport

FM5_A01.fm Page iv Friday, November 17, 2006 4:43 PM

for

Janusz M. Gasiorek

1927\u20132003

friend and guide

FM5_A01.fm Page v Friday, November 17, 2006 4:43 PM

FM5_A01.fm Page vi Friday, November 17, 2006 4:43 PM

Contents

Preface to the Fifth Edition xix
Preface to the Fourth Edition xxi
Preface to the Third Edition xxiv
Preface to the Second Edition xxvi
Preface to the First Edition xxvii
Acknowledgements xxviii
List of Computer Programs xxix
List of Symbols xxxi

PART I ELEMENTS OF FLUID MECHANICS

Chapter 1 Fluids and their Properties 2

1.1 Fluids 4
1.2 Shear stress in a moving fluid 4
1.3 Differences between solids and fluids 5
1.4 Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids 6
1.5 Liquids and gases 7
1.6 Molecular structure of materials 7
1.7 The continuum concept of a fluid 9
1.8 Density 10
1.9 Viscosity 11
1.10 Causes of viscosity in gases 12
1.11 Causes of viscosity in a liquid 13
1.12 Surface tension 14
1.13 Capillarity 15
1.14 Vapour pressure 16
1.15 Cavitation 17
1.16 Compressibility and the bulk modulus 17
1.17 Equation
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