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# Engineering Fluid Mechanics (9th edition) by Donald F. Elger, Barbara C. Williams, Clayton T. Crowe

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```CONTENTS
PREFACE.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction.

1.1 Liquids and Gases.
1.2 The Continuum Assumption.
1.3 Dimensions, Units, and Resources.
1.4 Topics in Dimensional Analysis.
1.5 Engineering Analysis.
1.6 Applications and Connections.

CHAPTER 2 Fluid Properties.

2.1 Properties Involving Mass and Weight.
2.2 Ideal Gas Law.
2.3 Properties Involving Thermal Energy.
2.4 Viscosity.
2.5 Bulk Modulus of Elasticity.
2.6 Surface Tension.
2.7 Vapor Pressure.
2.8 Summary.

CHAPTER 3 Fluid Statics.

3.1 Pressure.
3.2 Pressure Variation with Elevation.
3.3 Pressure Measurements.
3.4 Forces on Plane Surfaces (Panels).
3.5 Forces on Curved Surfaces.
3.6 Buoyancy.
3.7 Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies.
3.8 Summary.

CHAPTER 4 Flowing Fluids and Pressure Variation.

4.1 Descriptions of Fluid Motion.
4.2 Acceleration.
4.3 Euler\u2019s Equation.
4.4 Pressure Distribution in Rotating Flows.
4.5 The Bernoulli Equation Along a Streamline.
4.6 Rotation and Vorticity.
4.7 The Bernoulli Equation in Irrotational Flow.
4.8 Separation.
4.9 Summary.

CHAPTER 5 Control Volume Approach and Continuity Equation.

5.1 Rate of Flow.
5.2 Control Volume Approach.
5.3 Continuity Equation.
5.4 Cavitation.
5.5 Differential Form of the Continuity Equation.
5.6 Summary.

CHAPTER 6 Momentum Equation.

6.1 Momentum Equation: Derivation.
6.2 Momentum Equation: Interpretation.
6.3 Common Applications.
6.5 Moment-of-Momentum Equation.
6.6 Navier-Stokes Equation.
6.7 Summary.

CHAPTER 7 The Energy Equation.

7.1 Energy, Work, and Power.
7.2 Energy Equation: General Form.
7.3 Energy Equation: Pipe Flow.
7.4 Power Equation.
7.5 Contrasting the Bernoulli Equation and the Energy Equation.
7.6 Transitions.
7.7 Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines.
7.8 Summary.

CHAPTER 8 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude.

8.1 Need for Dimensional Analysis.
8.2 Buckingham Theorem.
8.3 Dimensional Analysis.
8.4 Common-Groups.
8.5 Similitude.
8.6 Model Studies for Flows Without Free-Surface Effects.
8.7 Model-Prototype Performance.
8.8 Approximate Similitude at High Reynolds Numbers.
8.9 Free-Surface Model Studies.
8.10 Summary.

CHAPTER 9 Surface Resistance.

9.1 Surface Resistance with Uniform Laminar Flow.
9.2 Qualitative Description of the Boundary Layer.
9.3 Laminar Boundary Layer.
9.4 Boundary Layer Transition.
9.5 Turbulent Boundary Layer.
9.6 Pressure Gradient Effects on Boundary Layers.
9.7 Summary.

CHAPTER 10 Flow in Conduits.

10.1 Classifying Flow.
10.2 Specifying Pipe Sizes.
10.4 Stress Distributions in Pipe Flow.
10.5 Laminar Flow in a Round Tube.
10.6 Turbulent Flow and the Moody Diagram.
10.7 Solving Turbulent Flow Problems.
10.9 Nonround Conduits.
10.10 Pumps and Systems of Pipes.
10.11 Summary.

CHAPTER 11 Drag and Lift.

11.1 Relating Lift and Drag to Stress Distributions.
11.2 Calculating Drag Force.
11.3 Drag of Axisymmetric and 3D Bodies.
11.4 Terminal Velocity.
11.5 Vortex Shedding.
11.6 Reducing Drag by Streamlining.
11.7 Drag in Compressible Flow.
11.8 Theory of Lift.
11.9 Lift and Drag on Airfoils.
11.10 Lift and Drag on Road Vehicles.
11.11 Summary.

CHAPTER 12 Compressible Flow.

12.1 Wave Propagation in Compressible Fluids.
12.2 Mach Number Relationships.
12.3 Normal Shock Waves.
12.4 Isentropic Compressible Flow Through a Duct with Varying Area.
12.5 Summary.

CHAPTER 13 Flow Measurements.

13.1 Measuring Velocity and Pressure
13.2 Measuring Flow Rate (Discharge).
13.3 Measurement in Compressible Flow.
13.4 Accuracy of Measurements.
13.5 Summary.

CHAPTER 14 Turbomachinery.

14.1 Propellers.
14.2 Axial-Flow Pumps.
14.4 Specific Speed.
14.5 Suction Limitations of Pumps.
14.6 Viscous Effects.
14.7 Centrifugal Compressors.
14.8 Turbines.
14.9 Summary.

CHAPTER 15 Flow in Open Channels.

15.1 Description of Open-Channel Flow.
15.2 Energy Equation for Steady Open-Channel Flow.
15.5 Rapidly Varied Flow.
15.6 Hydraulic Jump.
15.8 Summary.

Appendix

Index I-1.

C H A P T E R

1
Introduction

SIG\ufffdIFICA\ufffdT LEAR\ufffdI\ufffdG OUTCOMES

Fluid mechanics applies concepts related to force and energy to practical problems

such as the design of gliders. (Photo courtesy of DG Flugzeugbau GmbH.)

Conceptual Knowledge

· Describe fluid mechanics.

· Contrast gases and liquids by describing similarities and differences.

· Explain the continuum assumption.

Procedural Knowledge

· Use primary dimensions to check equations for dimensional homogeneity.

· Apply the grid method to carry and cancel units in calculations.

· Explain the steps in the \u201cStructured Approach for Engineering Analysis\u201d (see Table 1.4).

Prior to fluid mechanics, students take courses such as physics, statics, and dynamics, which involve

solid mechanics. Mechanics is the field of science focused on the motion of material bodies.

Mechanics involves force, energy, motion, deformation, and material properties. When mechanics

applies to material bodies in the solid phase, the discipline is called solid mechanics. When the

material body is in the gas or liquid phase, the discipline is called fluid mechanics. In contrast to a

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solid, a fluid is a substance whose molecules move freely past each other. More specifically, a fluid is

a substance that will continuously deform\u2014that is, flow under the action of a shear stress.

Alternatively, a solid will deform under the action of a shear stress but will not flow like a fluid. Both

liquids and gases are classified as fluids.

This chapter introduces fluid mechanics by describing gases, liquids, and the continuum assumption.

This chapter also presents (a) a description of resources available in the appendices of this text, (b) an

approach for using units and primary dimensions in fluid mechanics calculations, and (c) a

systematic approach for problem solving.

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1.1 Liquids and Gases
This section describes liquids and gases, emphasizing behavior of the molecules. This knowledge is useful for

understanding the observable characteristics of fluids.

Liquids and gases differ because of forces between the molecules. As shown in the first row of Table 1.1, a

liquid will take the shape of a container whereas a gas will expand to fill a closed container. The behavior of the

liquid is produced by strong attractive force between the molecules. This strong attractive force also explains

why the density of a liquid is much higher than the density of gas (see the fourth row). The attributes in Table

1.1 can be generalized by defining a gas and liquid based on the differences in the attractive forces between

molecules. A gas is a phase of material in which molecules are widely spaced, molecules move about freely, and

forces between molecules are minuscule, except during collisions. Alternatively, a liquid is a phase of material in

which molecules are closely spaced, molecules move about freely, and there are strong attractive forces between

molecules.

Table 1.1 COMPARISO\ufffd OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, A\ufffdD GASES

Attribute Solid Liquid Gas

Typical

Visualization

Macroscopic```