Gruber's Complete GRE Guide 2015   Gruber, Gary R
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Gruber's Complete GRE Guide 2015 Gruber, Gary R


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Gary r. Gruber, PhD
*GRE® is a registered trademark of the Educational Testing Service, which was not 
involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this book.
4th Edition
*
GRUBER\u2019S
COMPLETE
GUIDE 2015
GRE
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Copyright © 2014 by Gary R. Gruber
Cover and internal design © 2014 by Sourcebooks, Inc.
Sourcebooks and the colophon are registered trademarks of Sourcebooks, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means 
including information storage and retrieval systems\u2014except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical 
articles or reviews\u2014without permission in writing from its publisher, Sourcebooks, Inc.
This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. 
It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional 
service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should 
be sought.\u2014From a Declaration of Principles Jointly Adopted by a Committee of the American Bar Association and a 
Committee of Publishers and Associations
All brand names and product names used in this book are trademarks, registered trademarks, or trade names of their 
respective holders. Sourcebooks, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor in this book.
Published by Sourcebooks, Inc.
P.O. Box 4410, Naperville, Illinois 60567-4410
(630) 961-3900
Fax: (630) 961-2168
www.sourcebooks.com
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is on file with the publisher.
Printed and bound in the United States of America.
DR 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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Recent and Forthcoming Study Aids from 
Dr. Gary Gruber Include
Gruber\u2019s Complete SAT Guide 2015
Gruber\u2019s Complete PSAT/NMSQT Guide 2015
Gruber\u2019s Complete ACT Guide 2015
Gruber\u2019s SAT 2400
Gruber\u2019s Complete SAT Math Workbook
Gruber\u2019s Complete SAT Critical Reading Workbook
Gruber\u2019s Complete SAT Writing Workbook
Gruber\u2019s SAT Word Master
Gruber\u2019s Essential Guide to Test Taking: Grades 3\u20135
Gruber\u2019s Essential Guide to Test Taking: Grades 6\u20139
www.collegecountdown.com
www.sourcebooks.com
www.drgarygruber.com
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v
Important Note About This 
Book and Its Author
This book is the most up-to-date and complete book on the current GRE (Graduate Record 
Examinations). Every exam is patterned after the GRE, and all the strategies and techniques 
deal with the GRE. The GRE incorporates all the Gruber Critical-Thinking Strategies.
This book was written by Dr. Gary Gruber, the leading authority on the GRE, who knows 
more than anyone else in the test-prep market exactly what is being tested in the GRE. In fact, 
the procedures to answer the GRE questions rely more heavily on the Gruber Critical-Thinking 
Strategies than ever before, and this is the only book that has the exact thinking strategies you 
need to use to maximize your GRE score. Gruber\u2019s books are used by the nation\u2019s school 
districts more than any other books.
Dr. Gruber has published more than 35 books with major publishers on test-taking and 
critical-thinking methods, with more than 7 million copies sold. He has also authored more 
than 1,000 articles on his work in scholarly journals and nationally syndicated newspapers, 
has appeared on numerous television and radio shows, and has been interviewed in hundreds 
of magazines and newspapers. He has developed major programs for school districts and for 
city and state educational agencies for improving and restructuring curriculum, increasing 
learning ability and test scores, increasing motivation and developing a passion for learning 
and problem solving, and decreasing the student dropout rate. For example, PBS (Public 
Broadcasting System) chose Dr. Gruber to train the nation\u2019s teachers on how to prepare 
students for the SAT through a national satellite teleconference and videotape. His results have 
been lauded by people throughout the country from all walks of life.
Dr. Gruber is recognized nationally as the leading expert on standardized tests. It is said 
that no one in the nation is better at assessing the thinking patterns of how a person answers 
questions and providing the mechanism to improve faulty thinking approaches.
Gruber\u2019s unique methods have been and are being used by PBS, by the nation\u2019s learning 
centers, by international encyclopedias, by school districts throughout the country, in homes 
and workplaces across the nation, and by a host of other entities.
His goal and mission is to get people\u2019s potential realized and the nation \u201cimpassioned\u201d 
with learning and problem solving so that they don\u2019t merely try to get a fast, uncritical answer 
but actually enjoy and look forward to solving the problem and learning.
For more information on Gruber courses and additional Gruber products, visit www 
.drgarygruber.com.
Important: Many books do not reflect the current GRE questions. Don\u2019t practice with ques-
tions that misrepresent the actual questions on the GRE. For example, the math questions 
created by the test makers are oriented to allow someone to solve many problems without 
a calculator as fast as he or she could with one, and some can be solved faster without a 
calculator. This book reflects the GRE more accurately than any other commercial book, and 
the strategies contained in it are exactly those needed to be used on the GRE. It is said that 
only Dr. Gruber has the expertise and ability to reflect the exam far more closely than any 
competitor! Don\u2019t trust your future with less than the best material.
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vii
The Author Has Something 
Important to Tell You 
About How to Raise 
Your GRE Score
What Are Critical-Thinking Skills?
First of all, I believe that intelligence can be taught. Intelligence, simply defined, is the aptitude 
or ability to reason things out. I am convinced that you can learn to think logically and figure 
things out better and faster, particularly in regard to GRE Math and Verbal problems. But 
someone must give you the tools. Let us call these tools strategies. And that\u2019s what Critical-
Thinking Skills are all about\u2014strategies.
Learn the Strategies to Get More Points
The Critical-Thinking Skills (beginning on page 65) will sharpen your reasoning ability so that 
you can increase your score on each part of the GRE.
These Critical-Thinking Skills\u20145 General Strategies, 25 Math Strategies, and 17 Verbal 
Strategies\u2014course right through this book. The Explanatory Answers for the 3 Practice Tests 
in the book direct you to those strategies that may be used to answer specific types of GRE 
questions. The strategies in Part 4 of this book are usable for more than 90 percent of the 
questions that will appear on your GRE. It is obvious, then, that your learning and using the 47 
easy-to-understand strategies in this book will very likely raise your GRE score substantially.
Are the Practice Tests in This Book Like 
an Actual GRE?
If you compare any one of the 3 Practice Tests in this book with an actual GRE, you will find the 
book test very much like the actual test in regard to format, question types, and level of difficulty. 
Compare our book tests with one of the official tests written by the GRE people.
Building Your Vocabulary Can Make a 
Difference on Your Test
Although antonyms no longer appear on the GRE, vocabulary will still be tested, especially on 
Sentence Completions and Reading Comprehension. This book includes four vital sections to 
build your vocabulary:
 1. 3,400-Word List
 2. 100 Vocabulary Tests
 3. The Most Important/Frequently