Gruber's Complete GRE Guide 2015   Gruber, Gary R
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Gruber's Complete GRE Guide 2015 Gruber, Gary R


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Method / 162
Reading Comprehension Strategy 6: Circle 
Transitional Words in the Passage / 164
Reading Comprehension Strategy 7: Don\u2019t Answer a 
Question on the Basis of Your Own Opinion / 165
Reading Comprehension Strategy 8: After Reading 
the Passage, Read Each Question Carefully / 166
Reading Comprehension Strategy 9: Increase 
Your Vocabulary to Boost Your Reading 
Comprehension Score / 167
Reading Comprehension Strategy 10: Know 
How to Deal with Questions That Ask You to 
Find Statements That Support or Weaken the 
Arguments in a Passage or Statements That 
the Passage Does Not Provide Any Information 
About / 169
3 Vocabulary Strategies / 171
Vocabulary Strategy 1: Use Roots, Prefixes, and 
Suffixes to Get the Meanings of Words / 171
Vocabulary Strategy 2: Pay Attention to the Sound 
or Feeling of the Word\u2014Whether Positive or 
Negative, Harsh or Mild, Big or Little, Etc. / 173
Vocabulary Strategy 3: Use Word Association to 
Determine Word Meanings and Their 
Opposites / 175
pArt \u2002 5
miNi-\u2002mAtH\u2002reFresHer\u2002 177
Algebra and Arithmetic / 178 Geometry / 181
pArt \u2002 6
Complete\u2002Gre\u2002mAtH\u2002reFresHer\u2002 187
Session 1\u2014Fractions, Decimals, 
Percentages, Deviations, Ratios and 
Proportions, Variations, and Comparison 
of Fractions / 189
Fractions, Decimals, Percentages / 190
Deviations / 193
Ratios and Proportions / 194
Variations / 195
Comparison of Fractions / 196
Practice Test 1 / 198
Answer Key for Practice Test 1 / 207
Answers and Solutions for Practice Test 1 / 207
Session 2\u2014Rate Problems / 211
Word Problem Setup / 212
Distance and Time / 214
Work / 215
Mixture / 216
Cost / 216
Practice Test 2 / 218
Answer Key for Practice Test 2 / 227
Answers and Solutions for Practice Test 2 / 227
Session 3\u2014 Area, Perimeter, and Volume 
Problems / 237
Area, Perimeter, and Volume / 238
Practice Test 3 / 246
Answer Key for Practice Test 3 / 255
Answers and Solutions for Practice Test 3 / 255
Session 4\u2014Algebra Problems / 261
Algebraic Properties / 262
Fundamental Laws of Our Number System / 262
Algebraic Expressions / 263
Equations / 263
Algebra of Graphs / 265
Inequalities / 272
Exponents and Roots / 277
Practice Test 4 / 278
Answer Key for Practice Test 4 / 286
Answers and Solutions for Practice Test 4 / 286
Session 5\u2014 Geometry Problems / 291
Basic Definitions / 292
Triangles / 294
GRE2015_Intro.indd 11 4/18/14 11:24 AM
Properties of Triangles / 295
Four- Sided Figures / 298
Many- Sided Figures / 299
Circles / 299
Practice Test 5 / 302
Answer Key for Practice Test 5 / 311
Answers and Solutions for Practice Test 5 / 311
Session 6\u2014 Miscellaneous Problems / 321
Averages, Medians, Modes, and Standard 
Deviation / 322
Properties of Integers / 324
Approximations / 325
Combinations / 327
Permutations / 327
Probability / 328
The Absolute Value Sign / 328
Functions / 328
Practice Test 6 / 329
Answer Key for Practice Test 6 / 335
Answers and Solutions for Practice Test 6 / 335
Session 7\u2014Tables, Charts, and Graphs / 
339
Charts and Graphs / 340
Tables and Charts / 340
Graphs / 341
Bar Graphs / 342
Circle Graphs / 343
Line Graphs / 344
Practice Test 7 and Solutions / 345
Session 8\u2014Modern Math / 351
Sets / 352
Relations / 353
Solution Sets / 353
Axioms / 354
Closed Sets / 354
Mathematical Symbols / 354
Practice Test 8 and Solutions / 355
pArt \u2002 7
VoCAbulArY\u2002buildiNG\u2002tHAt\u2002is\u2002GuArANteed\u2002to\u2002 
rAise\u2002Your\u2002Gre\u2002sCore\u2002 363
Knowing Word Meanings Is Essential for a Higher 
GRE Score / 364
8 Steps to Word Power / 365
The Gruber Prefix-Root-Suffix List That Gives You the 
Meanings of More Than 150,000 Words / 368
A List of Standardized Test Words Appearing More 
Than Once on Actual Standardized Exams Such as 
the GRE and SAT / 373
The Most Important/Frequently Used GRE Words and 
Their Opposites / 375
The Gruber GRE 3,400-Word List / 379
100 Tests to Strengthen Your Vocabulary / 428
Answers to Vocabulary Tests / 471
pArt \u2002 8
ANAlYtiCAl\u2002WritiNG\u2002seCtioN\u2002 475
Analytical Writing 1 Test\u2014Analyze an Issue / 476
Scoring the \u201cAnalyze an Issue\u201d Analytical Writing 1 
Section / 480
Sample Analytical Writing Topics, Scored Sample 
Essay Responses, and Reader Commentary / 483
Analytical Writing 2 Test\u2014Analyze an Argument / 487
Scoring the \u201cAnalyze an Argument\u201d Analytical Writing 
2 Section / 491
Analytical Writing Score Level Descriptions / 494
Sample Argument Essay Responses and Reader 
Commentary / 495
Important Tips on How to Write the Best Essay / 499
GRE2015_Intro.indd 12 4/18/14 11:24 AM
pArt \u2002 1 0
3\u2002Gre\u2002prACtiCe\u2002tests\u2002 515
P A R T 9
A\u2002brieF\u2002reVieW\u2002oF\u2002eNGlisH\u2002GrAmmAr\u2002 507
Frequent Grammatical Problems / 508
Common Errors in Grammar / 509
Some Basic Grammatical Terms / 510
Other Grammatical Terms / 511
Common Grammar Errors Classified by Part 
of Speech / 512 
5 Important Reasons for Taking These Practice 
Tests / 516
9 Tips for Taking the Practice Tests / 517
Guidelines to See How You Would Do on a GRE and 
What You Should Do to Improve / 518
GRE Practice Test 1 / 519
How Did You Do on This Test? / 558
Answer Key for Practice Test 1 / 559
Scoring the GRE Practice Test / 563
GRE Score Conversion Table / 564
Chart for Self- Appraisal Based on the Practice Test 
You Have Just Taken / 565
Explanatory Answers for GRE Practice Test 1 / 567
What You Must Do Now to Raise Your GRE 
Score / 584
GRE Practice Test 2 / 586
How Did You Do on This Test? / 624
Answer Key for Practice Test 2 / 625
Scoring the GRE Practice Test / 629
GRE Score Conversion Table / 630
Chart for Self-Appraisal Based on the Practice Test You 
Have Just Taken / 631
Explanatory Answers for GRE Practice Test 2 / 633
What You Must Do Now to Raise Your GRE Score / 650
GRE Practice Test 3 / 652
How Did You Do on This Test? / 690
Answer Key for Practice Test 3 / 691
Scoring the GRE Practice Test / 695
GRE Score Conversion Table / 696
Chart for Self-Appraisal Based on the Practice Test You 
Have Just Taken / 697
Explanatory Answers for GRE Practice Test 3 / 699
What You Must Do Now to Raise Your GRE 
Score / 717
AppeNdixes\u2002 719
Appendix A: Hot Prefixes and Roots / 719 Appendix B: Words Commonly Mistaken for Each 
Other / 724
GRE2015_Intro.indd 13 4/18/14 11:24 AM
xiv
iNtroduCtioN
Important Facts 
About the GRE 
The Computer-Based GRE Test
When you take the computer-based test, you can edit or change your answers within a section.
You can skip and return later within a timed section.
You can use an on-screen calculator for the Quantitative Reasoning section.
You will have a question where you will have to highlight an answer within a reading passage.
My own personal feeling is that it is better to take the paper-based GRE test, since you 
do not have to rely on seeing the questions on a screen. You have them on paper and can 
mark on your paper and make use of strategies like drawing lines in a diagram or underlining 
statements in a paragraph right on the paper. Note that on the paper-based test, you will enter 
your answers in the test booklet rather than on a separate answer sheet.
Important Test Dates for the Paper-Based and 
Computer-Based GRE
For the latest test dates, go to http://www.ets.org/gre/revised_general/register/centers 
_dates/.
What Is on the GRE?
It will include two student-written essays. The essays will be the first part of the test. The Math 
section will include arithmetic, geometry, algebra I, and some advanced math covering topics 
in algebra II, statistics, probability, and data analysis. The test will measure reasoning ability 
and problem-solving skills. The other parts of the test will contain some long and shorter 
reading