Gruber's Complete GRE Guide 2015   Gruber, Gary R
756 pág.

Gruber's Complete GRE Guide 2015 Gruber, Gary R

DisciplinaInglês18.945 materiais128.408 seguidores
Pré-visualização50 páginas
the tenements of the 19th-century city and into the 
greenery and privacy of the single-family home in the suburbs 
(which has given us urban sprawl and traffic jams).
Now you should say to yourself, \u201cIt seems that for 
every positive thing that the author mentions, there is a 
negative occurrence that leads to the environmental crisis.\u201d
Now read the last sentence of this paragraph:
The environmental crisis, in other words, is largely the result of 
doing too much of the right sort of thing.
Now you can say to yourself, \u201cGee, we wanted to do 
the right thing, but we created something bad. It looks 
like you can\u2019t have your cake and eat it too!\u201d
Now you should anticipate that in the next and final 
paragraph, the author will discuss what may be done to 
reduce the bad effects that come from the good. Look at 
the first sentence of the third paragraph:
To overcome the problems that success always creates, one must 
build on it.
Now you can say to yourself, \u201cWell, how?\u201d In fact, 
in the next sentence the author asks the very question 
you just asked: But where to start? Read on to find out 
the author\u2019s answer.
Cleaning up the environment requires determined, sustained 
effort with clear targets and deadlines. It requires, above all, 
concentration of effort.
So now you can say to yourself, \u201cOh, so that\u2019s what 
we need\u2014definite goals, deadlines for reaching those 
goals, and genuine effort to achieve the goals.\u201d
The author then discusses what you may have 
already thought about:
Up to now we have tried to do a little bit of everything\u2026
What the author is saying (and you should realize 
this) is that up to now, we haven\u2019t concentrated on one 
particular problem at a time. We used \u201cbuckshot instead 
of bullets.\u201d Read on:
\u2014and tried to do it in the headlines\u2014when what we ought to do 
first is draw up a list of priorities.
So you can now see that, in the author\u2019s opinion, 
making a list of priorities and working on them one 
at a time, with a target in mind, may get us out of the 
environmental crisis and still preserve our quality of life.
How to Answer Reading 
Comprehension Questions 
Most Effectively
Before we start to answer the questions, let me tell you 
the best and most effective way of answering passage 
questions. You should read the question and proceed to 
look at the choices in the order of Choice A, Choice B, 
etc. If a choice (such as Choice A) doesn\u2019t give you the 
definite feeling that it is correct, don\u2019t try to analyze it 
further. Go on to Choice B. Again, if that choice (Choice 
B) doesn\u2019t make you feel that it\u2019s the right one, and you 
really have to think carefully about the choice, go on 
to Choice C and the rest of the choices and choose the 
best one.
Suppose you have gone through all five choices, 
and you don\u2019t know which one is correct, or you don\u2019t 
see any one that stands out as obviously being correct. 
Then quickly guess or leave the question blank if you 
wish and go on to the next question. You can go back 
after you have answered the other questions relating 
to the passage. But remember, when you return to the 
questions you weren\u2019t sure of, don\u2019t spend too much 
time on them. Try to forge ahead on the test.
Let\u2019s proceed to answer the questions now. Look at 
the first question:
 1. This passage assumes the desirability of
(A) using atomic energy to conserve fuel
(B) living in comfortable family lifestyles
(C) settling disputes peacefully
(D) combating cancer and heart disease with 
energetic research
(E) having greater government involvement in 
people\u2019s daily lives
Look at Choice A. That doesn\u2019t seem correct. Now 
look at Choice B. Do you remember that the author 
claimed that the environmental crisis is the result of the 
successful attempt to get people out of their tenements 
and into a better environment? We can only feel that the 
author assumes this desirability of living in comfortable 
family lifestyles (Choice B) since the author uses the 
word success in describing the transition from living in 
tenements to living in single-family homes. Therefore, 
Choice B is correct. You don\u2019t need to analyze or even 
consider the other choices, since we have zeroed in on 
Choice B.
GRE2015_P04.indd 149 4/18/14 11:29 AM
150 \u2022 GRUBER\u2019S COMPLETE GRE GUIDE 2015
Let\u2019s look at Question 2:
 2. According to this passage, one early step in any 
effort to improve the environment would be to
(A) return to the exclusive use of natural fertilizers
(B) put a high tax on profiteering industries
(C) ban the use of automobiles in the cities
(D) study successful efforts in other countries
(E) set up a timetable for corrective actions
Again, let\u2019s go through the choices in the order 
Choice A, Choice B, etc., until we come up with the 
right choice. Choices A, B, C, and D seem unlikely to 
be correct. So look at Choice E. We remember that 
the author said that we should establish clear targets 
and deadlines to improve the environment. That makes 
Choice E look like the correct answer.
Let\u2019s look at Question 3:
 3. The passage indicates that the conditions that led 
to overcrowded roads also brought about
(A) more attractive living conditions for many 
(B) a healthier younger generation
(C) greater occupational opportunities
(D) the population explosion
(E) greater concentration of population pressures
Here we would go back to the part of the passage 
that discussed overcrowded roads. This is where 
(second paragraph) the author says that urban sprawl 
and traffic jams are one result of success in getting 
people out of tenements and into single-family homes. 
So you can see that Choice A is correct. Again, there is 
no need to consider other choices, since you should be 
fairly comfortable with Choice A.
Let\u2019s look at Question 4:
 4. It could logically be assumed that the author of this 
passage would support legislation to
(A) ban the use of all pesticides
(B) prevent the use of automobiles in the cities
(C) build additional conventional power plants 
(D) organize an agency to coordinate efforts to 
cope with environmental problems
(E) restrict the press coverage of protests led by 
environmental groups
This is the type of question that asks you to deter-
mine how the author might feel about something else, 
when you already know something about the author\u2019s 
sentiments on one particular subject.
Choices A, B, and C do not seem correct. But look 
at Choice D. The author said that the way to get out 
of the energy crisis is to set targets and deadlines in 
order to cope with specific problems. The author would 
therefore probably want to organize an agency to do 
this. Choice D is correct.
Let\u2019s look at another passage, and what I\u2019m going 
to tell you is what would be going through my mind as I 
read it. The more you can get involved with the passage 
in an active and not a passive way, the faster you\u2019ll read 
it, and the more you\u2019ll get out of it.
Introductory Passage 2
Some scraps of evidence bear out those who hold a very high 
opinion of the average level of culture among the Athenians 
of the great age. The funeral speech of Pericles is the most 
famous indication from Athenian literature that its level was 
indeed high. Pericles was, however, a politician, and he may 
have been flattering his audience. We know that thousands of 
Athenians sat hour after hour in the theater listening to the 
plays of the great Greek dramatists. These plays, especially 
the tragedies, are at a very high intellectual level throughout. 
There are no letdowns, no concessions to the lowbrows or 
to the demands of \u201crealism,\u201d such as the scene of the grave-
diggers in Hamlet. The music and dancing woven into these 
plays were almost certainly at an equally high level. Our 
opera\u2014not Italian opera, not even Wagner, but the restrained,