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��3�� Moore TJ, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vogt TM, Conlin PR, Simons�Morton
DG, Carter�Edwards L, Harsha DW�� Effect of dietary patterns on amb�latory blood press��
re�� Res�lts from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension �DASH� Trial�� Hypertension

��4�� Griffith LE, G�yatt GH, Cook RJ, B�cher HC, Cook DJ�� The infl�ence of dietary and nondietary
calci�m s�pplementation on glood press�re�� Am J Hypertens �������2��84��

����� C�rhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ�� Comparison of dietary cal�
ci�m with s�pplemental calci�m and other n�trients as factors affecting the risk for kidney
stones in women�� Ann Intern Med ���7���2����4�7��

������ Jones DW�� Dietary sodi�m and blood press�re�� Hypertension 2004��43���32��
��7�� He F, MacGregor G�� Effect of longer�term modest salt red�ction on blood press�re�� Cochrane

Database Syst Rev 2004��3��CD004�37��
��8�� Chobanian AV, Hill M�� National Heart, L�ng, and Blood Instit�te Workshop on Sodi�m and Blood

Press�re�� A critical review of c�rret scientific evidence�� Hypertension 2000��3���8�8���3��
����� J�la AM, Karanko HM�� Effects on left ventric�lar hyperthrophy on long�term non pharmaco�

logical treatment with sodi�m restriction in mild�to�moderate essential hypertension�� Circ��
lation ���4��8����023��

�20�� He FJ, Markand� ND, Mac Gregor A�� Modest Salt Red�ction Lowers Blood Press�re in Isola�
ted Systolic Hypertension and Combined Hypertension�� Hypertension 200���4���������70��

�2��� Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Applegate WB, Ettinger WH Jr, Kostis JB, K�manyika S,
Lacy CR, Johnson KC, Folmar S, C�tler JA�� Sodi�m red�ction and weight loss in the treatment
of hypertension in older people�� a randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interven�
tions in the elderly �TONE��� TONE Collaborative Research Gro�p�� JAMA ���8��27���83�–4����

�22�� US Department of Health and H�man Services, National Instit�tes of Health, National Heart,
L�ng and Blood Instit�te�� Complete Report�� The Seventh Report of the Joint National Commit�
tee on Prevention, Detection, Eval�ation, and Treatment of High Blood Press�re�� A�g�st, 2004��

�23�� Mattes RD, Donnelly D�� Relative contrib�tions of dietary sodi�m so�rces�� J Am Coll N�tr

�24�� Whelton SP, Chin A, Xin X, He J�� Effects of aerobic exercise on blood press�re�� A meta�analy�
sis of randomized controlled trials�� Ann /intern Med 2002���3���� 4�3��03��

�2��� Kelley GA, Kelley KS�� Progressive resistance exercise and resting blood press�re�� A meta�
analysis of randomized controlled trials�� Hypertension, 2000�� 3��� 838�43��

�2���� Pescatello LS, Franklin BA, Fagard R, Farq�har WB, Kelley GA, Ray CA�� American Colle�
ge os Sports Medicine position stand�� Exercise and hypertension�� Med Sci Sports Exerc

�27�� Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH�� Effects of end�rance training on blood press�re, blood press�re�
reg�lating mechanisms, and cardiovasc�lar risk factors�� Hypertension 200���4��������7�7���

�28�� Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, Do D, Partington S, Atwood JE�� Exercise capacity and
mortality among men referred for exercise testing�� N Engl J Med 2002��34��������7�3�80���

�2��� Woo KS, Chool P, Y� CW, S�ng RY, Qiao M, Le�ng SS, Lam CW, Metreweli C, Celermajer DS��
Effects of diet and exercise on obesity�related vasc�lar dysf�nction in children�� Circ�lation

�30�� D�nn AL, Marc�s BH, Kampert JB, Garcia ME, Kohl HW, Blair SN�� Comparison of lifestyle and
str�ct�red interventions to increase physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness�� a ranso�
mized trial�� JAMA ������28���327�34��

�3��� Padilla J, Wallace JP, Parks S�� Acc�m�lation of physical activity red�ces blood press�re in
pre� and hypertension�� MSSE 200�,37���2��4�7���

�32�� Carvalho T, Cortez AA, Ferraz A, Nóbrega ACL, Br�netto AF, Herdy AH, Hossri CAC, Neder
CA, Negrão CE, Araújo CGS, Brito FS, Dr�mmond FA, Roselino F, Nog�eira GA, Umeda ILK,
Oliveira Filho JA, Teixeira JAC, Lazzoli JK, Mastrocolla LE, Benetti M, Leitão MB, Zager M,
Alves MJNN, Grinberg M, Godoy M, Silva OB, Stein R, Costa RV, Meneghelo RS, Moraes

RS, Serra SM, Ramos S�� Reabilitação cardiop�lmonar e metabólica�� aspectos práticos e
responsabilidades�� Arq Bras Cardiol 200����83�����448�4�2��

�33�� Reaven G, Tsao PS�� Ins�lin resistance and compensatory hyperins�linemia�� the key player be�
tween cigarrette smoking and cardiovasc�lar disease? J Am Coll Cardiol 2003��4����044��047��

�34�� Janzon E, Hedblad B, Bergl�nd G, Engström G�� Changes in body weight following smoking
cessation in women�� J Intern Med 2004��2����2�����272��

�3��� Lipp MEN�� Blood press�re reactivity to social stress in an experimental sit�ation�� Revista de
Ciências Médicas 200����4�4���3�7�32�� �B���

�3���� Unger T, Parati G�� Ac�te stress and long lasting blood press�re elevation�� a possible ca�se of
established hypertension? J Hypertension 200��23��2����2��3 �B���

�37�� To�yz RM, Campbell N, Logan A, Gledhil N, Petrella R, Padwal R�� Canadian Hypertension Ed�cation
Program�� The 2004 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension�� Part III�
Lifestyle modifications to preventa nd control hypertension�� Can J Cardiol 2004��20���������� �C���

�38�� Kannel WB�� Blood press�re as a cardiovasc�lar risk factor�� prevention and treatment�� JAMA

�3��� Padwal R, Stra�s SE, McAlister FA�� Cardiovasc�lar risk factors and their impact on decision
to treat hypertension��an evidence�based review�� BMJ 200���322���77–80��

�40�� Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovick DS, Koepsell TD, Weiss NS, Heckbert SR, Lemaitre RN, Wag�
ner EH, F�rberg CD�� Health o�tcomes associated with antihpertensive therapies �sed as
firstline agents�� A systematic review and meta�analysis�� JAMA ��77��277��73�–4���

�4��� Wright JM, Lee C�H, Chamber GK�� Systematic review of antihypertensive therapies�� does the
evidence assist in choosing a first�line dr�g�� CMAJ ������������2�–32��

�42�� SHEP�Cooperative Research Gro�p�� Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive dr�g treatment
in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension�� final res�lts of the Systolic Hypertension
in the Elderly Program �SHEP��� JAMA ������2�����32��–��4��

�43�� Medical Research Co�ncil Working Party�� MRC trial of treatment of hypertension�� rincipal
res�lts�� BMJ ��8���2�����7–�04��

�44�� UK Prospective Diabetes St�dy Gro�p�� Efficacy of atenolol and captopril in red�cing risk
of macrovasc�lar and microvasc�lar complications in type 2 diabetes�� UKPDS 3��� BMJ

�4��� Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N, for the Blood Press�re Lowering Treatment
Trialists´Collaboration�� Effects of ACE inhibitors, calci�m antagonists, and other blood�pres�
s�re�lowering dr�gs�� res�lts of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials�� Lan�
cet 2000��3�������������4��

�4���� Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Niskanen L, Lanke J, Hedner T, Niklason A, L�omanmaki K, Dahlof
B, de Faire U, Morlin C, Karlberg BE, Wester PO, Bjorck JE�� Effect of angiotensin conver�
ting enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovasc�lar morbidity and
mortality on hypertension�� the Captopril Prevention Project �CAPPP� randomized trial�� Lancet

�47�� Y�s�f S�� Sleight P�� Pog�e J�� Bosch J�� Davies R�� Dagenais G�� Effects of an angiotensin�con�
verting�enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovasc�lar events in high�risk patients�� The Heart
O�tcomes Prevention Eval�ation St�dy Investigators�� N Engl J Med 2000��342�3����4���3��

�48�� PROGRESS Collaborative Gro�p�� Randomized Trial of a perindopril�based�blood press�re�lo�
wering regimen among ��,�0� individ�als with previo�s stroke or transient ischaemic attack��
Lancet, 200���3����033–4���

�4��� Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Ekbom T, Dahlof