Aula 5 estagio
Disciplina:Prática de Ensino e Estágio Superv. de Inglês I13 materiais • 218 seguidores
or expression(s) with visual images. They can be stored and later retrieved for use. However, not only images can be used. Some students find it easier to connect new words and expressions with motion, sound and/or even touch. E.g. a German speaker, who is learning English, when coming across the word 'plate', might notice how similar this word is in sound and spelling to the German word 'Platte' (which means record/LP). S/he may form a mental image containing 'plate', but also some aspect of 'Platte': e.g. a plate revolving on the turntable of an old record player. Retrieving this visual image will remind him/her that the word s/he is seeking is in some way similar to the sound of the German 'Platte'. (Bull, S. & Ma, Y., 2013) 2 – Cognitive strategies → these strategies seem to be favored by most students, according to Samida (2013). They allow students to manipulate or transform the target language. Students do so by repeating, summarizing and/or transforming the language. E.g. the student might present the main ideas of a text in the form of a map. S/he might also highlight the main points in a text and make a summary or translate this text into another language. 3 – Compensation strategies → these strategies allow students to comprehend the target language when their knowledge of the grammar and vocabulary of this language is not good enough. Students might infer meaning from context during a reading or listening comprehension activity, and/or use gestures or pauses to convey a message. E.g. A students might use his/her previous knowledge of the language to learn something new. INDIRECT STRATEGIES The indirect language learning strategies are used to support and manage learning indirectly by helping learners to regulate the learning process. Indirect strategies are also subdivided into three groups: 1 – Metacognitive strategies → these strategies allow students to plan language learning effectively by identifying the best way of learning, and also by identifying their own learning needs, planning an assignment, collecting and organizing materials, establishing time and place for studying, monitoring mistakes and evaluating his/her success in performing an activity. E.g. a student might make a list of effective ways of learning. 2 – Affective strategies → Affective factors can influence learning in an important way. Some affective strategies concern the learner being able to identify his/her level of anxiety, talk about his/her feelings, and reward him/herself for a positive result in performance, among others. E.g. A student might listen to his/her favorite song before practicing the target language. 3 – Social strategies → some social strategies include asking for clarification, asking for help, exploring social and cultural norms, among others. They help learners to understand the assignment at hand better as well as motivate group work. Group work is important because communication occurs between people and also because it promotes cooperation among learners. Cooperation between learners is more effective than competition because it focus on group union, instead of on adversary parts. E.g. Students might work in small groups to read a text and complete a table about it. TEACHING LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES Direct and indirect strategies are not supposed to be used independently. In fact, they complement each other and should be interconnected. Those students who are able to use both types of strategies in combination are usually more effective learners. Unfortunately, teachers do not usually spend time teaching language learning strategies in class. Of course, they are usually pressed for time and there is so much to do, after all. However, it is the teacher’s job to introduce this topic into language classes in order to help learners to learn the target language faster, more easily and more effectively. It is also important to note that the use of language learning strategies not only improves language learning, but it also improves teaching. Indeed, in order to train his/her students to use these strategies to become better learners, the teacher must also be aware of learning/teaching theories and know how to use them in his/her practice, which leads to reflective teaching. It also must be clear to both learners and teachers that learning is ultimately the students’ responsibility. Therefore, motivation is the key word here. If students learn how to use learning strategies and become motivated enough, the chances for success are very high. In this lesson we talked about language learning strategies and how important they are in the process of learning a foreign language. Next class we are going to review all the topics we have studied so far, in order to consolidate this knowledge. See you then!