Fundamentals of Ceramics
622 pág.

Fundamentals of Ceramics


DisciplinaPropriedades e Produtos Cerâmicos2 materiais53 seguidores
Pré-visualização50 páginas
Physical Constants
Gas Constant R
Boltzmann's Constant A
Plank's Constant h
Electronic charge c
Velocity of light c
Permittivity of free space CQ
Rest mass of electron mc
Avogadro's Constant /VA
Gravitational Acceleration g
Faraday's Constant F
Permeability of free space //,0
8.31467J/K-mol
1.381 x 10 - 2 3 J/atom K = 8.62 x 10 -5atom K
6.625 x 1 0 - 3 4 ( J - s )
1.6x 10-19C
2.998 x 108m/s
8.85 x 1 0 - 1 2 C 2 / J - m
9.11 x 10 - 3 l(kg)
6.022 x 1023 particles/mole
9.81 m/s2
96,487 C/equivalent
4 x vr x 1 0 - 7 W b / A - m
Conversions
Length
1m =
l m =
1 m =
1m =
l m =
1 mm
1 cm =
1 m =
Mass
1 Mg
l kg =
l kg =
1 g =
1010A
109 nm
10 j.im
103 mm
102 cm
= 0.0394 in
= 0.394 in
3.28 ft
= 103 kg
= 103 g
= 2.205 lbm
2.205 x 10 - 3 lbm
1 A=
1 nm
1 m =
1 mm
1 cm
lin =
1 in =
l ft =
1 kg -
1 a =
1 lbm
1 lbm
10 - 1 0 m
= 10 - 9 m
= 10 -6 m
= 10-3 m
= 10 - 2 m
= 25.4mm
= 2.54 cm
0.3048 m
= 10 -3 Mg
10 - 3 kg
= 0.4536 kg
= 453.6g
Area
1 m2 = 104 cm2
1 mm2 = 10-2 cm"
1 m2 = 10.76ft2
1 cm2 = 0.1550 in2
Volume
1m3 = 106cm3
1 mm3 = 1 0-3 cm3
1m3 = 35.32 ft3
1cm3 =0.06 10 in3
1L= 103cm3
1 gal (US) = 3.785L
1 cm2
1cm2
I f t 2 =
1 in" =
1 cm3
1 cm3
1 ft3 =
1 in =
1 cm3
1L =
= 10 -4m2
= 102 mm2
= 0.093 m2
= 6.452 cm2
= 10 -6m3
= 103 mm3
= 0.0283 m3
= 16.39cm3
= 10-3 L
0.264 gal
Density
lkg/m3 = 10 -3g/cm3
1 Mg/m3 = 1 g/cm3
1 kg/cm3 = 0.0624 lbm/ft3
lg/cm3 = 6 2 . 4 1 b m / f t 3 I g/cm3 = 0.03611bm/in3
lg/cm3 = 103kg/m3
1 g/m3 = 1 Mg/m3
11bm/ft3 = 16.02kg/m3
11bm/ft3 = 1.602 x 10 -2g/m3
11bm/in3 = 27.7 g/cm3
Force
1 N = CV/m = J/m
1N= 105 dynes
1 N = 0.2248 lbf
l dyne= 10 - 5N
11bf = 4.448 N
Energy
U = 6.24x 1018
leV = 3.83 x 10-26cal
U = l N - m = l W - s
eV
-26
U = 0.239cal l e V = 1.602 x 10 - 1 9 J U=10 - 7 e rgs
l Btu = 252.0 cal 1 cal = 2.61 x 1010eV 1 cal = 4.184 J
1 eV/particle = 96,500 J/mole
Photon energy: E = 1.24eV at A = 1 jim Thermal energy (@300 K) kT = 0.0258 eV
Power
1 W = 3.414 Btu/h
lBtu /h = 0.293 W
l cal/s= 14.29 Btu/h
1 Btu/h = 0.070 cal/s
l k W = 1.341hp
lhp = 0.7457 kW
Heat Capacity 
1 J / k g - K = 2.39 x 10p4cal/g.K 
1 cal/g * -C = 1 .0 Btu/lb, * F 
1 Btu/lb, * "F = 41 84 J/kg * K 
Thermal Conductivity 
1 W/m - K = 2.39 x lo-' cal/cm 9 s - K 
1 cal/cm - s . K = 241.8 Btu/Ft he F 
1 Btu/Ft .h- F = 1.730W/m.K 
Pressure (or stress) 
1 torr = 130Pa 
1 MPa = 0.102 kg/mm2 
1 kg/mm' = 1422 psi 
1 atin = 1.013 x 105Pa = 0.lMPa 
I atni = 760 torr 
1 psi = 6.90 x IO-'MPa 
I dyne/cm' = 0.10 pa 
1 torr = 1.316 x 10p'atin 
1 Pa = bar 
1 J/kg. K = 2.39 x Btu/lb,, * F 
1 cal/g- C = 4184J/kg-K 
I Btu/lb, * F = 1 .O cal/g * K 
1 W/m * K = 0.578 Btu/Ft - h . F 
Ica l / cm-s .K = 418.4W/in-K 
1 B t u / F t - h - F = 4.136 x lK'caI /cm.s .K 
1 MPa =7 145psi 
1 Pa = lOdynes/cin' 
1 Pa = 1 N/m' 
I bar = 10' Pa 
1 torr = 1 mm Hg 
1 kg/mm2 = 9.806MPa 
1 psi = 7.03 x 
1 Pa = 9.869 x IO-'atm 
1 mm Hg = 1 torr 
kg/mm2 
Unit Abbreviations 
atm = atmosphere 
A = ampere 
A = angstrom 
C = Coulomb 
' C = degrees Celsius 
cal = calorie (gram) 
cm = centimeter 
eV = electron volt 
g = gram 
hr = hour 
J =joule 
K = degrees Kelvin 
kg = kilogram 
1 = liter 
m = meter 
Mg = megagram 
min =minute 
mni = millimeter 
SI Multiple and Submultiple Prefixes 
mol = mole 
MPa = megapascal 
N =newton 
nm = nanometer 
s = second 
T = temperature 
w 1 watt 
pin = micrometer (micron) 
Pa = pascal 
Multiplier Prefix Symbol Multiplier Prefix Symbol 
1 O l X exa E 
l o i 5 peta P 
lo'? tera T 
1 0" giga G 
1 O6 mega M 
1 0' kilo k 
10 centi C 
10 'I niilli m 
micro p 
10 nano n 
10 I' femto f 
pic0 P 10- 12 
10 I * atto a 
Group IA
H
H A
59
{41}
Effective Ionic and Atomic Radii of the Elements (pm)
HI A V A
Legend:
unbracketcd values are for octahedral coordination for valence indicated
{ } tetrahedral coordination for valence indicated
{ ) 8-fold coordination tor valence indicated
< > covalent radius
[ ] atomic radius
HS = high spin. SO = square
For a more comprehensive tabulation see App. 3A.
VII A
Group IA
H
VIII A
IIA
Atomic numbers, weights and electronic structures of select elements
III A
= [Xe]
Series in Materials Science and Engineering
Series Editors: B Cantor, Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK
M J Goringe, School of Mechanical and Materials
Engineering, University of Surrey, UK
Other titles in the series
Microelectronic Materials
C R M Grovenor
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK
Physical Methods for Materials Characterisation
P E J Flewitt
Magnox Electric, Berkeley, UK
and
R K Wild
University of Bristol, UK
Aerospace Materials
B Cantor, H Assender and P Grant
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK
Solidification and Casting
B Cantor and K O'Reilly
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK
Forthcoming titles in the series
Topics in the Theory of Solid Materials
J M Vail
University of Manitoba, Canada
Computer Modelling of Heat, Fluid Flow and Mass Transfer in
Materials Processing
C-P Hong
Yonsei University, Korea
Fundamentals of Fibre Reinforced Composite Materials
A R Bunsell and J Renard
Centre des Materiaux, Pierre-Marie Fourt, France
Metal and Ceramic Composites
B Cantor, F P E Dunne and I C Stone
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK
High Pressure Surface Science
Y Gogotsi and V Domnich
Department of Materials Engineering. Drexel University. USA
Series in Materials Science and Engineering
Michel W Barsoum
Department of Materials Engineering, Drexel University, USA
IoP
Institute of Physics Publishing
Bristol and Philadelphia
© IOP Publishing Ltd 2003
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior
permission of the publisher. Multiple copying is permitted in accordance
with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency under
the terms of its agreement with Universities UK (UUK).
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
ISBN 0 7503 0902 4
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data are available
First published in 1997 by McGraw-Hill
Series Editors: B Cantor and M J Goringe
Commissioning Editor: Tom Spicer
Production Editor: Simon Laurenson
Production Control: Sarah Plenty
Cover Design: Victoria Le Billon
Marketing: Nicola Newey and Verity Cooke
Published by Institute of Physics Publishing, wholly owned by
The Institute of Physics, London
Institute of Physics Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back,
Bristol BS1 6BE, UK
US Office: Institute of Physics Publishing, The Public Ledger Building,
Suite 929, 150 South Independence Mall West, Philadelphia,
PA 19106, USA
Typeset by Academic + Technical, Bristol
Printed in the UK by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall
Dedicated to classy Kate and inquisitive Michael,
the future scientist.
About the Author
Dr. Barsoum is currently a Distinguished Professor at Drexel University. He
and his research group were the first to fabricate and fully characterize an
important new class of machinable ternary carbides and nitrides, the
MN + 1AXN (so-called MAX) phases. Since 1996, Dr. Barsoum and his
collaborators have published over 60 refereed papers on these ternary
carbides and nitrides, including ones in Nature and Science. Dr. Barsoum
has authored or co-authored over 100 refereed publications, 6 US patents
awarded and 4 pending. In 2000 he was awarded a Humboldt-Max Planck
Research award for Senior US Research