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# Fundamentals of Ceramics

DisciplinaPropriedades e Produtos Cerâmicos2 materiais53 seguidores
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```Physical Constants
Gas Constant R
Boltzmann's Constant A
Plank's Constant h
Electronic charge c
Velocity of light c
Permittivity of free space CQ
Rest mass of electron mc
Gravitational Acceleration g
Permeability of free space //,0
8.31467J/K-mol
1.381 x 10 - 2 3 J/atom K = 8.62 x 10 -5atom K
6.625 x 1 0 - 3 4 ( J - s )
1.6x 10-19C
2.998 x 108m/s
8.85 x 1 0 - 1 2 C 2 / J - m
9.11 x 10 - 3 l(kg)
6.022 x 1023 particles/mole
9.81 m/s2
96,487 C/equivalent
4 x vr x 1 0 - 7 W b / A - m
Conversions
Length
1m =
l m =
1 m =
1m =
l m =
1 mm
1 cm =
1 m =
Mass
1 Mg
l kg =
l kg =
1 g =
1010A
109 nm
10 j.im
103 mm
102 cm
= 0.0394 in
= 0.394 in
3.28 ft
= 103 kg
= 103 g
= 2.205 lbm
2.205 x 10 - 3 lbm
1 A=
1 nm
1 m =
1 mm
1 cm
lin =
1 in =
l ft =
1 kg -
1 a =
1 lbm
1 lbm
10 - 1 0 m
= 10 - 9 m
= 10 -6 m
= 10-3 m
= 10 - 2 m
= 25.4mm
= 2.54 cm
0.3048 m
= 10 -3 Mg
10 - 3 kg
= 0.4536 kg
= 453.6g
Area
1 m2 = 104 cm2
1 mm2 = 10-2 cm&quot;
1 m2 = 10.76ft2
1 cm2 = 0.1550 in2
Volume
1m3 = 106cm3
1 mm3 = 1 0-3 cm3
1m3 = 35.32 ft3
1cm3 =0.06 10 in3
1L= 103cm3
1 gal (US) = 3.785L
1 cm2
1cm2
I f t 2 =
1 in&quot; =
1 cm3
1 cm3
1 ft3 =
1 in =
1 cm3
1L =
= 10 -4m2
= 102 mm2
= 0.093 m2
= 6.452 cm2
= 10 -6m3
= 103 mm3
= 0.0283 m3
= 16.39cm3
= 10-3 L
0.264 gal
Density
lkg/m3 = 10 -3g/cm3
1 Mg/m3 = 1 g/cm3
1 kg/cm3 = 0.0624 lbm/ft3
lg/cm3 = 6 2 . 4 1 b m / f t 3 I g/cm3 = 0.03611bm/in3
lg/cm3 = 103kg/m3
1 g/m3 = 1 Mg/m3
11bm/ft3 = 16.02kg/m3
11bm/ft3 = 1.602 x 10 -2g/m3
11bm/in3 = 27.7 g/cm3
Force
1 N = CV/m = J/m
1N= 105 dynes
1 N = 0.2248 lbf
l dyne= 10 - 5N
11bf = 4.448 N
Energy
U = 6.24x 1018
leV = 3.83 x 10-26cal
U = l N - m = l W - s
eV
-26
U = 0.239cal l e V = 1.602 x 10 - 1 9 J U=10 - 7 e rgs
l Btu = 252.0 cal 1 cal = 2.61 x 1010eV 1 cal = 4.184 J
1 eV/particle = 96,500 J/mole
Photon energy: E = 1.24eV at A = 1 jim Thermal energy (@300 K) kT = 0.0258 eV
Power
1 W = 3.414 Btu/h
lBtu /h = 0.293 W
l cal/s= 14.29 Btu/h
1 Btu/h = 0.070 cal/s
l k W = 1.341hp
lhp = 0.7457 kW
Heat Capacity
1 J / k g - K = 2.39 x 10p4cal/g.K
1 cal/g * -C = 1 .0 Btu/lb, * F
1 Btu/lb, * &quot;F = 41 84 J/kg * K
Thermal Conductivity
1 W/m - K = 2.39 x lo-' cal/cm 9 s - K
1 cal/cm - s . K = 241.8 Btu/Ft he F
1 Btu/Ft .h- F = 1.730W/m.K
Pressure (or stress)
1 torr = 130Pa
1 MPa = 0.102 kg/mm2
1 kg/mm' = 1422 psi
1 atin = 1.013 x 105Pa = 0.lMPa
I atni = 760 torr
1 psi = 6.90 x IO-'MPa
I dyne/cm' = 0.10 pa
1 torr = 1.316 x 10p'atin
1 Pa = bar
1 J/kg. K = 2.39 x Btu/lb,, * F
1 cal/g- C = 4184J/kg-K
I Btu/lb, * F = 1 .O cal/g * K
1 W/m * K = 0.578 Btu/Ft - h . F
Ica l / cm-s .K = 418.4W/in-K
1 B t u / F t - h - F = 4.136 x lK'caI /cm.s .K
1 MPa =7 145psi
1 Pa = lOdynes/cin'
1 Pa = 1 N/m'
I bar = 10' Pa
1 torr = 1 mm Hg
1 kg/mm2 = 9.806MPa
1 psi = 7.03 x
1 Pa = 9.869 x IO-'atm
1 mm Hg = 1 torr
kg/mm2
Unit Abbreviations
atm = atmosphere
A = ampere
A = angstrom
C = Coulomb
' C = degrees Celsius
cal = calorie (gram)
cm = centimeter
eV = electron volt
g = gram
hr = hour
J =joule
K = degrees Kelvin
kg = kilogram
1 = liter
m = meter
Mg = megagram
min =minute
mni = millimeter
SI Multiple and Submultiple Prefixes
mol = mole
MPa = megapascal
N =newton
nm = nanometer
s = second
T = temperature
w 1 watt
pin = micrometer (micron)
Pa = pascal
Multiplier Prefix Symbol Multiplier Prefix Symbol
1 O l X exa E
l o i 5 peta P
lo'? tera T
1 0&quot; giga G
1 O6 mega M
1 0' kilo k
10 centi C
10 'I niilli m
micro p
10 nano n
10 I' femto f
pic0 P 10- 12
10 I * atto a
Group IA
H
H A
59
{41}
Effective Ionic and Atomic Radii of the Elements (pm)
HI A V A
Legend:
unbracketcd values are for octahedral coordination for valence indicated
{ } tetrahedral coordination for valence indicated
{ ) 8-fold coordination tor valence indicated
HS = high spin. SO = square
For a more comprehensive tabulation see App. 3A.
VII A
Group IA
H
VIII A
IIA
Atomic numbers, weights and electronic structures of select elements
III A
= [Xe]
Series in Materials Science and Engineering
Series Editors: B Cantor, Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK
M J Goringe, School of Mechanical and Materials
Engineering, University of Surrey, UK
Other titles in the series
Microelectronic Materials
C R M Grovenor
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK
Physical Methods for Materials Characterisation
P E J Flewitt
Magnox Electric, Berkeley, UK
and
R K Wild
University of Bristol, UK
Aerospace Materials
B Cantor, H Assender and P Grant
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK
Solidification and Casting
B Cantor and K O'Reilly
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK
Forthcoming titles in the series
Topics in the Theory of Solid Materials
J M Vail
Computer Modelling of Heat, Fluid Flow and Mass Transfer in
Materials Processing
C-P Hong
Yonsei University, Korea
Fundamentals of Fibre Reinforced Composite Materials
A R Bunsell and J Renard
Centre des Materiaux, Pierre-Marie Fourt, France
Metal and Ceramic Composites
B Cantor, F P E Dunne and I C Stone
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK
High Pressure Surface Science
Y Gogotsi and V Domnich
Department of Materials Engineering. Drexel University. USA
Series in Materials Science and Engineering
Michel W Barsoum
Department of Materials Engineering, Drexel University, USA
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British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
ISBN 0 7503 0902 4
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data are available
First published in 1997 by McGraw-Hill
Series Editors: B Cantor and M J Goringe
Commissioning Editor: Tom Spicer
Production Editor: Simon Laurenson
Production Control: Sarah Plenty
Cover Design: Victoria Le Billon
Marketing: Nicola Newey and Verity Cooke
The Institute of Physics, London
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Dedicated to classy Kate and inquisitive Michael,
the future scientist.