622 pág.

# Fundamentals of Ceramics

Pré-visualização50 páginas

Physical Constants Gas Constant R Boltzmann's Constant A Plank's Constant h Electronic charge c Velocity of light c Permittivity of free space CQ Rest mass of electron mc Avogadro's Constant /VA Gravitational Acceleration g Faraday's Constant F Permeability of free space //,0 8.31467J/K-mol 1.381 x 10 - 2 3 J/atom K = 8.62 x 10 -5atom K 6.625 x 1 0 - 3 4 ( J - s ) 1.6x 10-19C 2.998 x 108m/s 8.85 x 1 0 - 1 2 C 2 / J - m 9.11 x 10 - 3 l(kg) 6.022 x 1023 particles/mole 9.81 m/s2 96,487 C/equivalent 4 x vr x 1 0 - 7 W b / A - m Conversions Length 1m = l m = 1 m = 1m = l m = 1 mm 1 cm = 1 m = Mass 1 Mg l kg = l kg = 1 g = 1010A 109 nm 10 j.im 103 mm 102 cm = 0.0394 in = 0.394 in 3.28 ft = 103 kg = 103 g = 2.205 lbm 2.205 x 10 - 3 lbm 1 A= 1 nm 1 m = 1 mm 1 cm lin = 1 in = l ft = 1 kg - 1 a = 1 lbm 1 lbm 10 - 1 0 m = 10 - 9 m = 10 -6 m = 10-3 m = 10 - 2 m = 25.4mm = 2.54 cm 0.3048 m = 10 -3 Mg 10 - 3 kg = 0.4536 kg = 453.6g Area 1 m2 = 104 cm2 1 mm2 = 10-2 cm" 1 m2 = 10.76ft2 1 cm2 = 0.1550 in2 Volume 1m3 = 106cm3 1 mm3 = 1 0-3 cm3 1m3 = 35.32 ft3 1cm3 =0.06 10 in3 1L= 103cm3 1 gal (US) = 3.785L 1 cm2 1cm2 I f t 2 = 1 in" = 1 cm3 1 cm3 1 ft3 = 1 in = 1 cm3 1L = = 10 -4m2 = 102 mm2 = 0.093 m2 = 6.452 cm2 = 10 -6m3 = 103 mm3 = 0.0283 m3 = 16.39cm3 = 10-3 L 0.264 gal Density lkg/m3 = 10 -3g/cm3 1 Mg/m3 = 1 g/cm3 1 kg/cm3 = 0.0624 lbm/ft3 lg/cm3 = 6 2 . 4 1 b m / f t 3 I g/cm3 = 0.03611bm/in3 lg/cm3 = 103kg/m3 1 g/m3 = 1 Mg/m3 11bm/ft3 = 16.02kg/m3 11bm/ft3 = 1.602 x 10 -2g/m3 11bm/in3 = 27.7 g/cm3 Force 1 N = CV/m = J/m 1N= 105 dynes 1 N = 0.2248 lbf l dyne= 10 - 5N 11bf = 4.448 N Energy U = 6.24x 1018 leV = 3.83 x 10-26cal U = l N - m = l W - s eV -26 U = 0.239cal l e V = 1.602 x 10 - 1 9 J U=10 - 7 e rgs l Btu = 252.0 cal 1 cal = 2.61 x 1010eV 1 cal = 4.184 J 1 eV/particle = 96,500 J/mole Photon energy: E = 1.24eV at A = 1 jim Thermal energy (@300 K) kT = 0.0258 eV Power 1 W = 3.414 Btu/h lBtu /h = 0.293 W l cal/s= 14.29 Btu/h 1 Btu/h = 0.070 cal/s l k W = 1.341hp lhp = 0.7457 kW Heat Capacity 1 J / k g - K = 2.39 x 10p4cal/g.K 1 cal/g * -C = 1 .0 Btu/lb, * F 1 Btu/lb, * "F = 41 84 J/kg * K Thermal Conductivity 1 W/m - K = 2.39 x lo-' cal/cm 9 s - K 1 cal/cm - s . K = 241.8 Btu/Ft he F 1 Btu/Ft .h- F = 1.730W/m.K Pressure (or stress) 1 torr = 130Pa 1 MPa = 0.102 kg/mm2 1 kg/mm' = 1422 psi 1 atin = 1.013 x 105Pa = 0.lMPa I atni = 760 torr 1 psi = 6.90 x IO-'MPa I dyne/cm' = 0.10 pa 1 torr = 1.316 x 10p'atin 1 Pa = bar 1 J/kg. K = 2.39 x Btu/lb,, * F 1 cal/g- C = 4184J/kg-K I Btu/lb, * F = 1 .O cal/g * K 1 W/m * K = 0.578 Btu/Ft - h . F Ica l / cm-s .K = 418.4W/in-K 1 B t u / F t - h - F = 4.136 x lK'caI /cm.s .K 1 MPa =7 145psi 1 Pa = lOdynes/cin' 1 Pa = 1 N/m' I bar = 10' Pa 1 torr = 1 mm Hg 1 kg/mm2 = 9.806MPa 1 psi = 7.03 x 1 Pa = 9.869 x IO-'atm 1 mm Hg = 1 torr kg/mm2 Unit Abbreviations atm = atmosphere A = ampere A = angstrom C = Coulomb ' C = degrees Celsius cal = calorie (gram) cm = centimeter eV = electron volt g = gram hr = hour J =joule K = degrees Kelvin kg = kilogram 1 = liter m = meter Mg = megagram min =minute mni = millimeter SI Multiple and Submultiple Prefixes mol = mole MPa = megapascal N =newton nm = nanometer s = second T = temperature w 1 watt pin = micrometer (micron) Pa = pascal Multiplier Prefix Symbol Multiplier Prefix Symbol 1 O l X exa E l o i 5 peta P lo'? tera T 1 0" giga G 1 O6 mega M 1 0' kilo k 10 centi C 10 'I niilli m micro p 10 nano n 10 I' femto f pic0 P 10- 12 10 I * atto a Group IA H H A 59 {41} Effective Ionic and Atomic Radii of the Elements (pm) HI A V A Legend: unbracketcd values are for octahedral coordination for valence indicated { } tetrahedral coordination for valence indicated { ) 8-fold coordination tor valence indicated < > covalent radius [ ] atomic radius HS = high spin. SO = square For a more comprehensive tabulation see App. 3A. VII A Group IA H VIII A IIA Atomic numbers, weights and electronic structures of select elements III A = [Xe] Series in Materials Science and Engineering Series Editors: B Cantor, Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK M J Goringe, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Surrey, UK Other titles in the series Microelectronic Materials C R M Grovenor Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK Physical Methods for Materials Characterisation P E J Flewitt Magnox Electric, Berkeley, UK and R K Wild University of Bristol, UK Aerospace Materials B Cantor, H Assender and P Grant Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK Solidification and Casting B Cantor and K O'Reilly Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK Forthcoming titles in the series Topics in the Theory of Solid Materials J M Vail University of Manitoba, Canada Computer Modelling of Heat, Fluid Flow and Mass Transfer in Materials Processing C-P Hong Yonsei University, Korea Fundamentals of Fibre Reinforced Composite Materials A R Bunsell and J Renard Centre des Materiaux, Pierre-Marie Fourt, France Metal and Ceramic Composites B Cantor, F P E Dunne and I C Stone Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK High Pressure Surface Science Y Gogotsi and V Domnich Department of Materials Engineering. Drexel University. USA Series in Materials Science and Engineering Michel W Barsoum Department of Materials Engineering, Drexel University, USA IoP Institute of Physics Publishing Bristol and Philadelphia © IOP Publishing Ltd 2003 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. Multiple copying is permitted in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency under the terms of its agreement with Universities UK (UUK). British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 0 7503 0902 4 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data are available First published in 1997 by McGraw-Hill Series Editors: B Cantor and M J Goringe Commissioning Editor: Tom Spicer Production Editor: Simon Laurenson Production Control: Sarah Plenty Cover Design: Victoria Le Billon Marketing: Nicola Newey and Verity Cooke Published by Institute of Physics Publishing, wholly owned by The Institute of Physics, London Institute of Physics Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK US Office: Institute of Physics Publishing, The Public Ledger Building, Suite 929, 150 South Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA Typeset by Academic + Technical, Bristol Printed in the UK by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall Dedicated to classy Kate and inquisitive Michael, the future scientist. About the Author Dr. Barsoum is currently a Distinguished Professor at Drexel University. He and his research group were the first to fabricate and fully characterize an important new class of machinable ternary carbides and nitrides, the MN + 1AXN (so-called MAX) phases. Since 1996, Dr. Barsoum and his collaborators have published over 60 refereed papers on these ternary carbides and nitrides, including ones in Nature and Science. Dr. Barsoum has authored or co-authored over 100 refereed publications, 6 US patents awarded and 4 pending. In 2000 he was awarded a Humboldt-Max Planck Research award for Senior US Research