Cognition, brain and consciousness
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Cognition, brain and consciousness


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COGNITION, BRAIN, AND CONSCIOUSNESS
SECOND EDITION
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COGNITION, BRAIN, AND 
CONSCIOUSNESS 
 Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience 
 Second Edition 
 BERNARD J. BAARS 
 NICOLE M. GAGE 
 
AMSTERDAM \u2022 BOSTON \u2022 HEIDELBERG \u2022 LONDON \u2022 NEW YORK \u2022 OXFORD
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 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 
 Baars , Bernard J. 
 Cognition , brain, and consciousness : introduction to cognitive neuroscience/Bernard Baars, 
 Nicole Gage. \u2014 2nd ed. 
 p . cm. 
 Includes bibliographical references and index. 
 ISBN 978-0-12-375070-9 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Cognitive neuroscience. I. Gage, Nicole M. II. Title. 
 QP360 .5.B33 2010 
 612 .8\u2019233\u2014dc22 
 2009039469 
 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data 
 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. 
 ISBN :978-0-12-375070-9 
 For color figures, glossary, and study guide, please visit 
our companion website: www.baars-gage.com
 For information on all Academic Press publications
visit our Web site at www.elsevierdirect.com 
 Printed in China 
 10 11 12 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
 
v
Contents
Preface xiii
Chapter 1 Mind and brain
1.0 Introduction 3
2.0 An invitation to mind-brain science 3
3.0 Some starting points 4
 3.1 Distance: seven orders of magnitude 4
 3.2 Time: ten orders of magnitude 6
 3.3 The need to make inferences \u2013 going beyond 
the raw observations 7
 3.4 The importance of convergent measures 10
 3.5 Major landmarks of the brain 10
4.0 Some history, and ongoing debates 13
 4.1 The mind and the brain 13
 4.2 Biology shapes cognition and emotion 14
 4.3 Cajal\u2019s neuron doctrine: the working 
assumption of brain science 16
 4.4 Pierre-Paul Broca and the localization of 
speech production 18
 4.5 The conscious and unconscious mind 20
5.0 The return of consciousness in the sciences 25
 5.1 How conscious and unconscious brain events 
are studied today 27
 5.2 History hasn\u2019t stopped 28
6.0 Summary 29
7.0 End of chapter exercises 30
 7.1 Study questions 30
 7.2 Drawing exercise 31
Chapter 2 A framework
1.0 Introduction 33
2.0 Classical working memory 34
 2.1 The \u2018inner senses\u2019 35
 2.2 Output functions 36
 2.3 Only a fleeting moment . . . 36
 2.4 Understanding Clive Wearing in the 
functional framework 39
 2.5 The importance of immediate memory 40
3.0 Limited and large-capacity functions 41
 3.1 Dual task limits 41
 3.2 Some very large brain capacities 43
 3.3 Why are there such narrow capacity 
limits? 44
 3.4 Measuring working memory 44
4.0 The inner and outer senses 46
 4.1 The mind\u2019s eye, ear, and voice 47
 4.2 The imagery sketchpad may use visual 
regions of cortex 49
 4.3 Is inner speech like outer speech? 49
 4.4 Is there only one working memory? 50
5.0 The central executive 50
 5.1 Executive effort and automaticity 52
 5.2 Executive and spontaneous attention 53
6.0 Action 54
7.0 Consolidation of short-term events into 
long-term memory 57
 7.1 Is working memory just re-activated 
permanent memory? 58
8.0 Summary 59
9.0 Study questions and drawing practice 60
 9.1 Study questions 60
 9.2 Drawing exercises 60
Chapter 3 Neurons and their connections
1.0 Introduction 63
 1.1 Real and idealized neurons 64
 1.2 Excitation and inhibition 65
 1.3 Neural computation 68
2.0 Working assumptions 68
 2.1 Starting simple: receptors, pathways, and 
circuits 69
3.0 Arrays and maps 71
 3.1 Maps flow into other maps 75
 3.2 Neuronal arrays usually have two-way 
connections 75
 3.3 Sensory and motor systems work 
together 75
CONTENTSvi
 3.4 Temporal codes: spiking patterns and 
brain rhythms 76
 3.5 Choice-points in the flow of 
information 80
 3.6 Top-down or expectation-driven 
processing 81
4.0 How neural arrays adapt and learn 83
 4.1 Hebbian learning: \u2018Neurons that fire 
together, wire together\u2019 83
 4.2 Neural Darwinism: survival of the fittest 
cells and synapses 85
 4.3 Symbolic processing and neural nets 87
5.0 Coordinating neural nets 88
 5.1 Functional redundancy 91
6.0 Summary 91
7.0 Study questions and drawing exercises 92
 7.1 Study questions 92
 7.2 Drawing exercises 92
Chapter 4 The tools: Imaging the living brain
1.0 Introduction 95
 1.1 Brain recording: more and less direct 
measurements 96
 1.2 The time-space tradeoff 96
2.0 A range of useful tools \u2013 measuring electric and 
magnetic signals 98
 2.1 Single-unit recording 98
 2.2 Animal and human studies cast light on 
each other 100
 2.3 Electroencephalography (EEG) 101
 2.4 Magnetoencephalography (MEG) 106
 2.5 Zapping the brain 107
3.0 Functional neuroimaging: a bold new 
world 113
 3.1 Regions of interest 115
 3.2 The resting brain is not silent: intrinsic 
brain processes 118
 3.3 Empirically defining cognitive functions: 
the creative key 119
4.0 New ways to measure brain connectivity: 
diffusion tensor imaging 121
5.0 Conscious versus unconscious brain 
events 121
6.0 Correlation and causation 122
 6.1 Why we need multiple tests of brain 
function 123
 6.2 Brain damage and causal inferences 124
7.0 Summary 124
8.0 Chapter review 125
 8.1 Drawing exercises and study 
questions 125
Chapter 5 The brain
1.0 Introduction 127
 1.1 The nervous system 128
 1.2 The geography of the brain 129
2.0 Growing a brain from the bottom up 133
 2.1 Evolution and personal history are 
expressed in the brain 133
 2.2 Building a brain from bottom to top 134
3.0 From \u2018where\u2019 to \u2018what\u2019: the functional roles 
of brain regions 136
 3.1 The cerebral hemispheres: the left-right 
division 136
 3.2 Output and input: the front-back 
division 143
 3.3 The major