Antibiotics 2018
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Antibiotics 2018


DisciplinaFarmacologia Farmacêutica515 materiais4.125 seguidores
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effective	duration	of	therapy,	54
Antibiotic	allergy,	43\u201344
Antibiotic	pharmacodynamics
defined,	35
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic	relationships,	41\u201342
static	versus	cidal,	39\u201341www.allmedicalbooks.com
susceptibility	testing,	35\u201339
Antibiotic	pharmacokinetics
absorption,	26\u201328
defined,	25
distribution,	29\u201331
metabolism/excretion,	31\u201333
phases	and	parameters,	26
Antibiotic	pressure,	and	collateral	damage,	50\u201351
Antibiotic	resistance,	45\u201346,	47\u201354
active	efflux,	49,	50
antibiotic	pressure	and	collateral	damage,	50\u201351
avoiding	using	antibiotics	to	treat	colonization	or	contamination,	53
causes	of,	47
coming	from,	48
decreased	permeability,	48,	50
enzymatic	modification,	49,	50
ESKAPE	pathogens,	51\u201352
guidelines	for	utilizing	antibiotics,	53\u201354
mechanisms	of,	48\u201350
preventing,	52\u201353
target	site	changes,	49,	50
using	narrow-spectrum	agent,	53\u201354
using	the	proper	dose,	54
using	the	shortest	effective	duration	of	therapy,	54
Antibiotic	toxicities,	44
Anti-cytomegalovirus	agents,	239\u2013242
adverse	effects,	240
cidofovir,	239\u2013242
foscarnet,	239\u2013242
ganciclovir,	239\u2013242
mechanisms	of	action,	239
valganciclovir,	239\u2013242
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Antifungal	antimetabolites
adverse	effects,	199\u2013201
agents,	199
flucytosine	(5-FC),	199
mechanism	of	action,	199
Antifungals
clinically	useful	spectra	of	activity	for	empiric	selection	of,	321
introduction	to,	191\u2013193.	See	also	individual	drugs
Anti-herpes	simplex	virus,	described,	235\u2013237
Anti-herpes	simplex	virus	agents,	235\u2013237
acyclovir,	235\u2013237
adverse	effects,	236
famciclovir,	235\u2013237
mechanism	of	action,	235
valacyclovir,	235\u2013237
Anti-infective,	defined,	15
Anti-infective	drug,	15
Antimicrobial,	defined,	15
Antimicrobial	agents,	16,	17\u201318,	61
Antimicrobial	chemotherapy,	16
Antimicrobial	prophylaxis,	16\u201317
Antimicrobial	resistance,	18
Anti-MRSA	cephalosporins,	93\u201395
adverse	effects,	94\u201395
agent,	93
ceftaroline,	93
mechanism	of	action,	93\u201394
spectrum,	94
Antimycobacterial	drugs.	See	also	individual	drugs
introduction	to,	173\u2013175
Antiparasitic	drugs.	See	also	individual	drugswww.allmedicalbooks.com
introduction	to,	289\u2013291
Antiparasitics,	290
Antipseudomonal	penicillins,	62,	73\u201374
adverse	effects,	74
agents,	73
described,	73\u201374
mechanism	of	action,	73
piperacillin,	73
spectrum,	73
ticarcillin,	73
Antiretroviral	drugs.	See	also	individual	drugs
introduction	to,	247\u2013248
Antiretrovirals,	33,	247
Antistaphylococcal	penicillins,	67\u201368
adverse	effects	of,	67\u201368
agents	of,	67
cloxacillin,	67
described,	67\u201368
dicloxacillin,	67
mechanism	of	action,	67
methicillin,	67
MSSA	and,	68
nafcillin,	67
oxacillin,	67
phlebitis	and,	68
spectrum,	67
Antiviral	drugs.	See	also	individual	drugs
introduction	to,	231\u2013233
Antiviral	interferons
adverse	effects,	272
agents,	271 www.allmedicalbooks.com
interferon-\u3b1	2a,	271\u2013273
interferon-\u3b1	2b,	271\u2013273
mechanism	of	action,	271
pegylated	interferon-\u3b1	2a,	271\u2013273
pegylated	interferon-\u3b1	2b,	271\u2013273
Arachnid,	289
Archaea,	4
Arteminsins,	290
Ascaris,	5,	290
Aspergillus,	5,	192
Aspiration	pneumonia,	78
Atazanavir	(ATV),	28,	33
described,	259\u2013263
Atovaquone,	290,	298
adverse	effects,	297
described,	297\u2013299
mechanism	of	action,	297
Atovaquone/proguanil,	290,	298
Atripla,	253,	256
Atypical	bacteria,	4
Avoidance	of	antibiotic	use,	28,	53
Azithromycin,	20
described,	131
Azoles.	See	also	individual	drugs
introduction	to,	203
multiple	topical	formulations,	203
Aztreonam
described,	105,	106
penicillin	allergy	and,	106
B
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B
Bacillus,	9
Bacteria,	microbiology	of,	3\u201314
Bactericidal	drugs,	bacteriostatic	versus,	39\u201340
Bacteriostatic	drugs	versus	bactericidal	drugs,	39\u201340
macrolides,	133
Bacteroides,	12
Bacteroides	fragilis,	85
Bartonella,	13
Benzimidazoles
adverse	effects,	302
mechanism	of	action,	301
Beta-lactamases
cephalosporins	and,	57,	61,	80
penicillins	and,	62\u201363,	67,	73,	75\u201378
Beta-lactams.	See	also	individual	drugs
beta-lactamase	inhibitor	combinations,	75\u201378
introduction	to,	57\u201359
MRSA	(methicillin-resistant	Staphylococcus	aureus)	and,	58\u201359
MSSA	and,	68,	89
seizures	and,	58
Staphylococci	and,	68,	69
Bioavailability,	of	antibiotics,	26\u201328
Blastomyces,	5,	192
Blood,	concentration	of	antibiotic	in,	29,	32
Boceprevir,	275\u2013279
Body	weight
adjusted,	31
ideal,	31
total	or	actual,	31
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Bone	marrow	suppression,	250
Burkholderia,	12,	14,	164
C
Calcium,	28,	120
Campylobacter,	13
Candida,	5,	21,	23,	45,	53,	192
antimetabolites	and,	199,	201
C.	albicans,	21,	205,	209,	213,	214,	215,	217,	226
candidiasis,	198,	200,	205,	207,	216\u2013217,	221,	223,	227
candiduria,	201,	216
C.	glabrata,	206,	209,	214,	217,	222,	226
C.	krusei,	199,	206,	209,	213,	217,	226
C.	lusitaniae,	196,	205,	209,	213,	217,	226
C.	parapsilosis,	205,	209,	213,	217,	226
C.	tropicalis,	205,	209,	213,	217,	226
echinocandins	and,	195,	223,	228
fluconazole	and,	201,	228
non-albicans	species	of,	205
polyenes	and,	225,	227
Candida	albicans,	21
Capsomeres,	232
Carbapenem-resistant	Enterobacteriaceae,	52
Carbapenems,	41,	57,	61,	101\u2013104
adverse	effects,	102\u2013103
agents,	101
doripenem,	101
ertapenem,	101
imipenem/cilastatin,	101
mechanism	of	action,	101
meropenem,	101
penicillin	allergy	and,	103
spectrum,	101\u2013102
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Cardiobacterium,	13
Caspofungin,	21
described,	223\u2013227
CDC,	51,	52,	291,	296
Cefaclor,	described,	83
Cefadroxil,	81
Cefamandole,	83
Cefazolin,	20
described,	81
Cefdinir,	87
Cefepime
described,	91
susceptibility	breakpoints,	38
Cefixime,	87
Cefmetazole,	83
Cefonicid,	83
Cefotaxime,	87
Cefotetan,	83
Cefoxitin,	83
Cefpodoxime,	87
Cefprozil,	83
Ceftaroline,	93\u201395
Ceftazidime,	42
described,	87
Ceftibuten,	87
Ceftriaxone,	20,	21,	30
described,	87
Cefuroxime,	27,	80,	85,	318
described,	83
Centers	for	Disease	Control	and	Prevention	(CDC),	291,	296www.allmedicalbooks.com
Central	nervous	system	(CNS),	25
Cephalexin,	81
Cephalosporin/beta-lactamase	inhibitor	combinations,	97\u201399
adverse	effects,	98\u201399
agents,	97
ceftazidime/avibactam,	97\u201399
ceftolozane/tazobactam,	97
mechanism	of	action,	98
spectrum,	98
Cephalosporins,	41.	See	also	individual	drugs
Acinetobacter	and,	97
activity	by	generation,	80
alcohol	and,	84
anaerobes	and,	84,	99
anaphylaxis	and,	80
anti-MRSA,	93\u201395
Bacteroides	and,	85
beta-lactamases	and,	57,	61,	80
bleeding	and,	84
central	nervous	system	infections	and,	82,	84,	88
Clostridium	and,	88
endocarditis	and,	82,	94
Enterococci	and,	81,	83,	87,	91
fifth-generation,	95
first-generation,	27,	81\u201382
fourth-generation,	91\u201392
GNRs	and,	97\u201398,	99
gonorrhea	and,	85,	88,	89
Gram-positive	organisms	and,	81,	91,	92
Haemophilus	and,	83
hives	and,	80
introduction	to,	79\u201380
Lyme	disease	and,	89
meningitis	and,	92,	94
MRSA	and,	93\u201395www.allmedicalbooks.com
MSSA	and,	82,	89
Neisseria	and,	83
neutropenia	and,	89,	92
N-methylthiotetrazole	(MTT),	84,	88
penicillin	allergy	and,	80
penicillinases,	80
phlebitis	and,	82
pneumonia	and,	85,	92,	94,	95
Pseudomonas	and,	98\u201399
pyelonephritis	and,	89
renal	function/dysfunction	and,	89,	92
respiratory	tract	infections	and,	85,	89
second-generation,	83\u201385
skin	infections	and,	81,	82,	89,	94
Staphylococci	and,	83
Streptococci	and,	83,	87,	91,	94,	98
third-generation,	87\u201389
urinary	tract	infections	and,	89
vitamin	K	and,	84,	88
Cephalothin,	81
Cerebrospinal	fluid	(CSF),	4
concentrations	of	antibiotics	in,	29
Cestodes,	290
Chlamydia,	4
Chloroquine,	293,	295
described,	293\u2013296
Cidofovir,	239\u2013242
Cilastatin,	101
Cinchona	tree,	293
Ciprofloxacin,	20,	21,	27
described,	117
fluoroquinolones	and,	118
susceptibility	E.	coli	to,	316www.allmedicalbooks.com
Citrobacter,	12
Clarithromycin,	33
described,	131
Clavulanate,	75\u201376
Clindamycin,