Antibiotics 2018
289 pág.

Antibiotics 2018


DisciplinaFarmacologia Farmacêutica519 materiais4.131 seguidores
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290
described,	159\u2013160
Clindamycin/Primaquine,	290
Clinical	and	Laboratory	Standards	Institute	(CLSI),	64
Clostridium,	9
Clostridium	difficile,	23,	45,	52
Clostridium	difficile-associated	diarrhea,	45,	88
Cloxacillin,	67
CMV.	See	Cytomegalovirus	(CMV)
CNS.	See	Central	nervous	system	(CNS)
Cobicistat,	33
Coccidioides,	5,	192
Colistin	(colistimethate	sodium),	163
Collateral	damage,	antibiotic	pressure	and,	50\u201351
Colonization,	avoiding	using	antibiotics	to	treat,	53
Combivir,	249
Community-acquired	pneumonia,	20,	58,	78,	85,	94\u201395
Complera,	253
Contamination,	avoiding	using	antibiotics	to	treat,	53
Corticosteroids,	303
Corynebacterium,	9
Cryptococcus,	5,	192
Cryptosporidium,	290
CSF.	See	Cerebrospinal	fluid	(CSF)
Cyclic	lipopeptides
adverse	effects,	152\u2013153
agents,	151
daptomycin,	151
mechanism	of	action,	151
spectrum,	151 www.allmedicalbooks.com
Cytomegalovirus	(CMV),	4,	235,	239\u2013242
D
Daclatasvir,	275\u2013279
Dalbavancin,	113\u2013115
Dalfopristin,	147
Dapsone,	155
Daptomycin,	41
described,	151
Darunavir	(DRV),	28,	33
described,	259\u2013263
Dasabuvir,	275\u2013279
Definitive	therapy,	18\u201319
examples	of,	20\u201321
Descovy,	249
Diarrhea
aminopenicillins	and,	70
Clostridium	difficile-associated,	45,	88
macrolides	and,	132,	133
penicillins	and,	61\u201362
Dicloxacillin,	67
Didanosine,	251
described,	249\u2013252
Dimorphic	fungi,	5,	192
Direct-acting	antihepatitis	C	agents,	275\u2013279
adverse	effects,	277\u2013278
boceprevir,	275\u2013279
grazoprevir,	275\u2013279
mechanism	of	action,	276
www.allmedicalbooks.com
paritaprevir,	275\u2013279
protease	inhibitors,	275\u2013279
simeprevir,	275\u2013279
telaprevir,	275\u2013279
Distribution,	antibiotic	pharmacokinetics,	29\u201331
DNA
plasmids	and,	48
synthesis,	155
topoisomerases,	118
Dolutegravir	(DTG),	265\u2013267
Doripenem
described,	101
Dosing	issues
fluconazole,	206\u2013207
glycopeptides	and,	109\u2013110
isavuconazole,	222\u2013223
polyenes,	196\u2013197
posaconazole,	218
voriconazole,	215
Doxycycline,	27,	290
described,	127
Drug-resistant	Neisseria	gonorrhoeae,	52
Drugs
absorption	impaired	by,	28
antibacterial,	15,	45
antifungal,	191\u2013193
antimicrobial,	15
antimycobacterial,	173\u2013175
antiparasitic	drugs,	15,	289\u2013291
antiretroviral,	33,	247\u2013248
antiviral,	231\u2013233www.allmedicalbooks.com
bacteriostatic.	See	Bacteriostatic	drugs
with	high	bioavailability,	26\u201328
interactions,	32\u201333
with	low	bioavailability,	26\u201328
protein-bound,	30
E
EBV.	See	Epstein-Barr	virus	(EBV)
Echinocandins
adverse	effects,	226
agents,	225
anidulafungin,	225,	226
caspofungin,	225,	226
mechanism	of	action,	225
micafungin,	225
Echinococcus,	290
E.	coli,	4,	13
ampicillin	and,	70
antibiotic	susceptibility	breakpoints,	38
nitrofurans	and,	143
penicillins	and,	70
susceptibility	to	ciprofloxacin,	316
Ectoparasites,	290
Efavirenz	(EFV),	33
described,	253\u2013257
Eikenella,	13
Elbasvir,	275\u2013279
Elvitegravir	(EVG),	33,	265\u2013267
EMB.	See	Ethambutol	(EMB)
Empiric	regimens	for	common	infections,	323\u2013328
Empiric	therapy,	17\u201318
www.allmedicalbooks.com
examples	of,	20
Emtricitabine	(FTC),	265\u2013267
described,	249\u2013252
Endocarditis,	40
penicillins	and,	65
Enfuvirtide	(T20),	269\u2013270
Entamoeba,	140,	290
Entecavir,	285\u2013286
Enteric	gram-negative	rods,	13.	See	also	Lactose-fermenting	Gram-
negative	rods
Enterobacter,	12,	13
Enterobacter	species,	52,	325
Enterococcus
cephalosporins	and,	81,	83,	87,	91
glycopeptides	and,	107
penicillins	and,	70
Enterococcus	faecalis,	9,	20
Enterococcus	faecium,	9,	52,	107
Entry	and	fusion	inhibitors
adverse	effects,	269\u2013270
dermatologic	effects,	269
described,	269\u2013270
hepatotoxicity	and,	268\u2013269
mechanism	of	action,	269
Epstein-Barr	virus	(EBV),	4
Epzicom,	249
Ertapenem,	22
described,	101
Erythromycin,	33,	131
Escherichia,	12 www.allmedicalbooks.com
Escherichia	coli.	See	E.	coli
ESKAPE	pathogens,	51\u201352
Ethambutol	(EMB)
adverse	effects,	187\u2013188
described,	187\u2013188
mechanism	of	action,	187
Mycobacterium	avium-intracellulare	complex,	187
Mycobacterium	kansasii	and,	187
Mycobacterium	tuberculosis	and,	187
Etravirine	(ETR),	33
described,	253\u2013257
Eukaryotes,	3,	5
Evotaz,	259
Excretion,	antibiotic	pharmacokinetics,	31\u201333
F
Famciclovir,	235\u2013237
Fastidious	organisms,	13,	14
Fidaxomicin
adverse	effects,	169\u2013170
agents,	169
mechanism	of	action,	169
spectrum,	169
Fifth-generation	cephalosporins,	95
First-generation	cephalosporins,	27,	81\u201382
adverse	effects,	81\u201382
agents,	81
cefadroxil,	81
cefazolin,	81
cephalexin,	81
cephalothin,	81
www.allmedicalbooks.com
mechanism	of	action,	81
spectrum,	81
Fluconazole,	21,	23,	27,	33,	203
adverse	effects,	206
dosing	issues,	206\u2013207
introduction	of,	205
mechanism	of	action,	205
Flucytosine	(5-FC)
described,	199
HIV	and,	200
Fluoroquinolones,	28,	41,	117\u2013121
adverse	effects,	118\u2013120
agents,	117
ciprofloxacin,	117,	118
gemifloxacin,	117,	118
indications	for,	121
levofloxacin,	117,	118
mechanism	of	action,	118
moxifloxacin,	117,	118
spectrum,	118
Folate	antagonists
adverse	effects,	156\u2013157
agents,	155
dapsone,	155
mechanism	of	action,	155
pyrimethamine,	155
spectrum,	155\u2013156
sulfadiazine,	155
sulfadoxine,	155
trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole	(TMP/SMX),	155
Fosamprenavir	(FPV),	259\u2013263www.allmedicalbooks.com
Foscarnet,	239\u2013242
Fosfomycin,	143\u2013145
Fourth-generation	cephalosporins,	91\u201392
adverse	effects,	91\u201392
agent,	91
cefepime,	91
mechanism	of	action,	91
spectrum,	91
Fulminant	hepatic	failure,	254\u2013255
Fungus,	5,	290
Fusarium,	192
Fusobacterium,	12
G
Ganciclovir,	239\u2013242
Gardnerella,	9
Gastrointestinal	(GI)	tract,	tetracyclines	and,	128
Gemifloxacin
described,	117
fluoroquinolones	and,	118
Gentamicin,	124
described,	123
Genvoya,	265\u2013267
Giardia,	5,	140,	290
Glucose	fermenters,	12
Glucose/lactose	fermentation,	13\u201314
Glycopeptides
adverse	effects,	108\u2013109
agents,	107
aminoglycosides	and,	123
described,	107\u2013111
www.allmedicalbooks.com
dosing	issues,	109\u2013110
long-acting,	113\u2013115
mechanism	of	action,	107\u2013108
spectrum,	108
telavancin,	107
vancomycin,	107
Glycylcyclines,	127\u2013130
GNRs.	See	Gram-negative	rods	(GNRs)
Gram-negative	organisms,	4
cell	walls	of,	7
fastidious	organisms,	14
glucose/lactose	fermentation,	13\u201314
glycopeptides	and,	108
Gram\u2019s	stain,	described,	5\u20136
morphology,	12\u201313
peptidoglycan,	11
Gram-negative	pathogens,	12
Gram-negative	rods	(GNRs)
cephalosporins	and,	97\u201398,	99
penicillins	and,	70\u201371,	73
third-generation	cephalosporins	and,	88
Gram-positive	bacilli,	9
Gram-positive	organisms,	4,	8
biochemistry	and	appearance	on	agar,	10
cell	walls	of,	6,	7
cephalosporins	and,	81,	91,	92
colony	clustering,	10
glycopeptides	and,	108
Gram\u2019s	stain,	described,	5\u20136
outermost	membrane	in,	6
penicillins	and,	69,	74
rapid	identification	based	on	morphology,	8\u20139
www.allmedicalbooks.com
Gram\u2019s	stain,	5\u20136
Gram	staining,	17
Grazoprevir,	275\u2013279
H
HACEK	organisms,	13
Haemophilus,	13
cephalosporins	and,	83
penicillins	and,	69,	73
Haemophilus	influenzae,	83
Helicobacter,	13
macrolides	and,	132
Helminthes	(worms),	301
Helminths,	5,	290
Hemoglobin,	283
Hepatic	steatosis,	251
Hepatitis
pyrazinamide,	185,	186
pyrazinamide	and,	185,	186
Hepatitis	B	nucleoside	analogs,	285\u2013286
adefovir,	285\u2013286
adverse	effects,	286
entecavir,	285\u2013286
mechanism	of	action,	285
telbivudine,	285\u2013286
Hepatitis	C	virus	(HCV),	260,	272
Hepatotoxicity
entry	and	fusion	inhibitors	and,	269\u2013270
nevirapine-induced,	254
non-nucleoside	reverse	transcriptase	inhibitors	(NNRTIs)	and,	254
www.allmedicalbooks.com
protease	inhibitors	and,	261
Herpes	simplex,	6
Herpes	simplex	virus	(HSV),	4
Herpes	simplex	virus	(HSV),	235\u2013237
Highly	active	antiretroviral	therapy	(HAART),	259
Histamine-2	receptor	antagonists,	28
Histoplasma,	192
HIV
anti-herpes	simplex	virus	agents	and,