Pré-visualização50 páginas

\ufffd LC\ufffd9 L89\ufffd; \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd L4\ufffd\ufffd L8)\ufffd8 \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd L9\ufffdC L8)\ufffd% \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd L4\ufffd% L89\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd L)\ufffd4 L8)\ufffd% #\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd L8%\ufffdC L84\ufffd% #\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd LC\ufffd9 L8)\ufffd% \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd L9\ufffd\ufffd L8)\ufffd% 3\ufffd# \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd/ \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd $ \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd! \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd 34) \ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd JH\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdIK \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd!%\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> 3\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd !\ufffd!%\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd,\ufffd" , \ufffd\ufffd, \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd"- \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd?\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd 34)\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd !\ufffd!%\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd J\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" 9\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd #<</ \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" :\ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd #<<\ufffdK> $ \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd% \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> J0 \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" 9\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd #<</ \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" :\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd #<<\ufffdK> Nucleation temperature (°C) Estimated molecular mass (kDa) Number of INPs required for nucleation -12 to -13 150 1 -3 870 60 -2 19800 132 -1 83700 558 Peptide linker Membrane anchorPlasma membrane Cylindrical INP \ufffd%\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd- \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffdB\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd- \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd" %- \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd D#\ufffd \ufffd+ \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!, \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd\ufffd! \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" J\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd #<<5K> 3\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!,\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd"\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd 340 %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd, , \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %- \ufffd\ufffd, \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> $ \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd%\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" %- , \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd! \ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd! \ufffd\ufffd D\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd D< \ufffd+> 0\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd 340 %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd " %\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> $ \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd J\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> #>5>/# \ufffd\ufffd" $\ufffd\ufffd % \ufffd #>5>;K> \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd" %- \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd- \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd 34)\ufffd> \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd" %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" J\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" :\ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd #<<5K ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd- \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd " \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> ) \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd% \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffdB\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd,,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd! \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd ?\ufffd\ufffd- \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd% \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd! (\ufffd9 .\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd +\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdB\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd7(\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> :\ufffdO\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd! \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %- \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd J4\ufffdMK \ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd,-> 3 \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffdB\ufffd!, \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd \ufffdO\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd%\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd, \ufffd- \ufffd \ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd J\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> #>5>//K> )4 $\ufffd!,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd L O G n u m b e r o f b a c te ri a l c e lls /g fw Nov Dec 1978 4 Bacteria (total number) INA bacteria Ice crystals 1979 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun L O G i c e n u c le i/ g fw3 2 1 0 4 3 2 1 0 \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd2\ufffd -\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd( \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd<\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd L9 \ufffd6\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd 5\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd 894\ufffd( 1 10 20 30 10 20 30 10 20 March April 1979 May L O G n u m b e r o f b a c te ri a l c e lls /g fw o r L O G i c e n u c le i/ g fw 1 A 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Bacteria (total number) INA bacteria Ice nuclei at -5 °C Ice nuclei at -9°C April 1979 May 1 10 20 30 20 B 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 INA bacteria Bacteria (total number) INA antagonist mutant A 506 10 30 Ice nuclei at -9°C Ice nuclei at -5 °C \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd 7 \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd<\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &\ufffd( \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd<\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd &3(\ufffd &\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd 5\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd 894\ufffd( \ufffd \ufffd'\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd-\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd<\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd 3\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd 6\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd 8 \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd$ 6 \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd &\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ( 9;@ *\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd ;8% 8\ufffd@ *\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd ;%9 84@ *\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd ;%) \ufffd)@ *\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd ;%C \ufffd\ufffd@ *\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd ;%4 ;8@ .\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd$\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd 7\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd 5\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd 894\ufffd( $ \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd! \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd>\ufffd> \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd \ufffdB\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd! \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd,\ufffd, \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> $ \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd%\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd> $ \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd> $ \ufffd\ufffd ?\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> $ \ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffdO\ufffd\ufffd"> 3\ufffd !\ufffd- %\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd,,\ufffd\ufffdB\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd , -\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd!\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd \ufffdB\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> $ \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd ?\ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd?\ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd J\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd' \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffdB #>5><K' \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd $ \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdB ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd JH\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdI )K> \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdB ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd?\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd J@ \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdK ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ) 0\ufffd !\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd ) \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd"- \ufffd,,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd> 0\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd J)[\ufffdK \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd,\ufffd , \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd' \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" "\ufffd -"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd> 3\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd "\ufffd -"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd - %- \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffdO\ufffd\ufffd"> $ \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd"-\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffdS \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffdB\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd " \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd ?\ufffd \ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> 3 \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd,, \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd !\ufffd " \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd-\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd7\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd , \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd J\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> #>5>//K> 3 !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffdO\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd " %\ufffd \ufffdB,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd \ufffdO\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd%\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd! \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd-\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd7\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> $ \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd%\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd !\ufffd"\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd %\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd D7 \ufffd+ \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd%\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd <\ufffdT \ufffd\ufffdO\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> 3\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd JDK\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd"(\ufffd\ufffd ) !\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd%\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd , \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd> \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - \ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd "\ufffd?\ufffd \ufffd,\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd" \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd ,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd - \ufffdB\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd' ) %\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd!\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd?\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd )9 1.0 R L ( L t · L 0 -1 ) R L ( L t · L 0 -1 ) 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Temperature (°C) Temperature-1 (°C-1) 0,0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 K \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd 7\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd>\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd(\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd,\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &:5( \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &5%( \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &\ufffd(\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd(\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &+S"\ufffd9@( \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd>\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd :5 \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd \ufffd .&\ufffd(M\ufffd&\ufffd( \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &\ufffd(\ufffd \ufffd :5 \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd &\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd 0\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd\ufffd \ufffd\ufffd\ufffd 3\ufffd\ufffd$ 8944(