LIVRO Plant Ecology
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LIVRO Plant Ecology


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Infection
Herbivory
Competition
Heat
Cold
Chilling
Frost
Drought
Flooding (hypoxia)
Light
UV
Ionising radiation
Mineral salts 
(deficiency, over-supply)
Pollutants
(heavy metals, pesticides)
Gaseous toxins
Wind
Soil movement
Submergence
Electrical fields
Magnetic fields
Temperature
Water
Radiation
Chemical
stress
Mechanical
stress
Other
stresses
Biotic
stress
factors
Abiotic
stress
factors
Exogenous
stress
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