The Biochemistry of Inorganic Polyphosphates 2d Ed - I S Kulaev
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The Biochemistry of Inorganic Polyphosphates 2d Ed - I S Kulaev


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The Biochemistry of Inorganic Polyphosphates
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The Biochemistry of Inorganic
Polyphosphates
Second Edition
I S Kulaev
Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation
and G K Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology
of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russian Federation
V M Vagabov
and
T V Kulakovskaya
G K Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology
of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russian Federation
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Kulaev, I. S. (Igor\u2019 Stepanovich)
The biochemistry of inorganic polyphosphates / I. S. Kulaev, V. M.
Vagabov, T. V. Kulakovskaya.\u20142nd ed.
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
ISBN 0-470-85810-9 (cloth)
1. Polyphosphates\u2014Metabolism. 2. Polyphosphates\u2014Physiological effect.
[DNLM: 1. Polyphosphates\u2014metabolism. 2. Enzymes\u2014metabolism. QV
285 K96b 2004] I. Vagabov, V. M. II. Kulakovskaya, T. V. III. Title.
QP535.P1 K84 2004
572\u2032.514\u2014dc22
2003025236
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 470 85810 9
Typeset in 10/12 pt. Times by TechBooks, New Delhi, India
Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG, Bodmin, Cornwall
This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestry
in which at least two trees are planted for each one used for paper production.
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To the respected memory of
Andrei Nikolaevich Belozersky,
an outstanding scientist,
teacher and man
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CONTENTS
Foreword to the First Edition xi
Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xv
Introduction 1
1 The Chemical Structures and Properties of Condensed
Inorganic Phosphates 3
1.1 The Structures of Condensed Phosphates 3
1.1.1 Cyclophosphates 4
1.1.2 Polyphosphates 5
1.1.3 Branched Inorganic Phosphates, or \u2018Ultraphosphates\u2019 7
1.2 Some Chemical Properties of Condensed Inorganic Polyphosphates 9
1.3 Physico-Chemical Properties of Condensed Inorganic
Polyphosphates 12
2 Methods of Polyphosphate Assay in Biological Materials 15
2.1 Methods of Extraction from Biological Materials 15
2.2 Chromatographic Methods 17
2.3 Colorimetric and Fluorimetric Methods 20
2.4 Cytochemical Methods 22
2.5 X-Ray Energy Dispersive Analysis 24
2.6 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 26
2.7 Other Physical Methods 31
2.8 Gel Electrophoresis 31
2.9 Enzymatic Methods 33
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viii Contents
3 The Occurrence of Polyphosphates in Living Organisms 37
4 The Forms in which Polyphosphates are Present in Cells 45
4.1 Polyphosphate\u2013Cation Complexes 45
4.2 Polyphosphate\u2013Ca2+\u2013Polyhydroxybutyrate Complexes 46
4.3 Complexes of Polyphosphates with Nucleic Acids 46
4.4 Binding of Polyphosphates with Proteins 50
5 Localization of Polyphosphates in Cells of Prokaryotes
and Eukaryotes 53
5.1 Prokaryotes 53
5.2 Eukaryotes 55
6 Enzymes of Polyphosphate Biosynthesis and Degradation 65
6.1 Enzymes of Polyphosphate Biosynthesis 65
6.1.1 Polyphosphate Kinase (Polyphosphate:ADP Phosphotrans-
ferase, EC 2.7.4.1) 65
6.1.2 3-Phospho-D-Glyceroyl-Phosphate:Polyphosphate Phospho-
transferase (EC 2.7.4.17) 70
6.1.3 Dolichyl-Diphosphate:Polyphosphate Phosphotransferase
(EC 2.7.4.20) 71
6.2 Enzymes of Polyphosphate Degradation 73
6.2.1 Polyphosphate-Glucose Phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.1.63) 73
6.2.2 NADKinase (ATP:NAD 2\u2032-Phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.23) 75
6.2.3 Exopolyphosphatase (Polyphosphate Phosphohydrolase, EC
3.6.1.11) 75
6.2.4 Adenosine\u2013Tetraphosphate Phosphohydrolase (EC 3.6.1.14) 85
6.2.5 Triphosphatase (Tripolyphosphatase, EC 3.6.1.25) 85
6.2.6 Endopolyphosphatase (Polyphosphate Depolymerase, EC
3.6.1.10) 86
6.2.7 PolyP:AMP Phosphotransferase 87
7 The Functions of Polyphosphates and Polyphosphate-
Dependent Enzymes 91
7.1 Phosphate Reserve 91
7.1.1 In Prokaryotes 92
7.1.2 In Eukaryotes 93
7.2 Energy Source 94
7.2.1 Polyphosphates in Bioenergetics of Prokaryotes 94
7.2.2 Polyphosphate in Bioenergetics of Eukaryotes 95
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Contents ix
7.3 Cations Sequestration and Storage 97
7.3.1 In Prokaryotes 97
7.3.2 In Eukaryotes 97
7.4 Participation in Membrane Transport 99
7.5 Cell Envelope Formation and Function 103
7.5.1 Polyphosphates in the Cell Envelopes of Prokaryotes 103
7.5.2 Polyphosphates in the Cell Envelopes of Eukaryotes 104
7.6 Regulation of Enzyme Activities 106
7.7 Gene Activity Control, Development and Stress Response 108
7.7.1 In Prokaryotes 108
7.7.2 In Lower Eukaryotes 115
7.8 The Functions of Polyphosphates in Higher Eukaryotes 118
8 The Peculiarities of Polyphosphate Metabolism in Different
Organisms 125
8.1 Escherichia coli 125
8.1.1 The Dynamics of Polyphosphates under Culture Growth 125
8.1.2 The Effects of Pi Limitation and Excess 127
8.1.3 The Effects of Mutations on Polyphosphate Levels and
Polyphosphate-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities 129
8.1.4 The Effects of Nutrition De\ufb01ciency and Environmental Stress 131
8.2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 131
8.3 Acinetobacter 134
8.4 Aerobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella aerogenes) 135
8.5 Azotobacter 137
8.6 Cyanobacteria (Blue\u2013Green Algae) and other Photosynthetic
Bacteria 138
8.7 Mycobacteria and Corynebacteria 140
8.8 Propionibacteria 142
8.9 Archae 145
8.10 Yeast 147
8.10.1 Yeast Cells Possess Different Polyphosphate Fractions 147
8.10.2 The Dynamics of PolyP Fractions during the Cell Cycle 148
8.10.3 TheRelationship between