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Applied Drilling Engineering

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Steve Pye, Union Oil Co. of California 
H:M. Staggs, ARCO Oil & Gas Co. 
L. Kent Thomas, Phillips Petroleum Co. 
Fred H. Poettmann, Colorado School of Mines 
Theodore Blevins, Chevron U.S.A. 
Philip Schenewerk, ENSERCH Exploration 
Wilmer A. Hoyer, Exxon Production Research Co. 
Steve Neuse, Hudson Consultants Inc. 
• 
Preface 
This book was written for use as a college textbook in a petroleum engineering curricu-
lum. The material was organized to present engineering science fundamentals first, fol-
lowed by example engineering applications involving these fundamentals. The level of 
engineering science gradually advances as one proceeds through the book. 
Chap. 1 is primarily descriptive material and intended as an introduction to drilling en-
gineering. It is suitable for use as a text in a freshman- or sophomore-level introductory 
petroleum engineering course. Chaps. 2 and 3 are designed for use in a drilling-fluids 
and cements laboratory course and are aimed at the sophomore or junior level. Chaps. 
4 through 7 are suitable for a senior-level drilling engineering course. Chap. 8 provides 
additional material that could be covered in a more advanced course at the senior level 
or in a masters-degree program. 
Because the text was designed for use in more than one course, each chapter is largely 
independent of previous chapters, enabling an instructor to select topics for use in a single 
course. Also, the important concepts are developed from fundamental scientific princi-
ples and are illustrated with numerous examples. These principles and examples should 
allow anyone with a general background in engineering or the physical sciences to gain 
a basic understanding of a wide range of drilling engineering problems and solutions. 
I 
• 
Contents 
1. Rotary Drilling 
1.1 Drilling Team 1 5.3 Bit Selection and Evaluation 209 
1.2 Drilling Rigs 3 5.4 Factors Affecting Tooth Wear 214 
1.3 Rig Power System 5 5.5 Factors Affecting Bearing Wear 219 
1.4 Hoisting System 7 5.6 Terminating a Bit Run 220 
1.5 Circulating System 12 5.7 Factors Affecting Penetration Rate 221 
1.6 The Rotary System 17 5.8 Bit Operation 236 
1.7 The Well Control System 21 Exercises 240 
1.8 Well-Monitoring System 26 
1.9 Special Marine Equipment 27 6. Formation Pore Pressure and 
1.10 Drilling Cost Analysis 32 Fracture Resistance 
Exercises 37 6.1 Formation Pore Pressure 246 
6.2 Methods for Estimating 
2. Drilling Fluids Pore Pressure 252 
2.1 Diagnostic Tests 42 6.3 Formation Fracture Resistance 285 
2.2 Pilot Tests 53 6.4 Methods for Estimating 
2.3 Water-Base Muds 54 Fracture Pressure 287 
2.4 Inhibitive Water-Base Muds 72 Exercises 294 
2.5 Oil Muds 75 
Exercises 82 7. Casing Design 
7.1 Manufacture of Casing 301 3. Cements 7.2 Standardization of Casing 302 
3.1 Composition of Portland Cement 85 7.3 API Casing Performance Properties 305 
3.2 Cement Testing 86 7.4 Casing Design Criteria 330 
3.3 Standardization of Drilling Cements 89 7.5 Special Design Considerations 339 
3.4 Cement Additives 90 Exercises 348 
3.5 Cement Placement Techniques 103 
Exercises 110 8. Directional Drilling and Deviation Control 
8.1 Definitions and Reasons for 
4. Drilling Hydraulics Directional Drilling 351 
4.1 Hydrostatic Pressure in 8.2 Planning the Directional 
Liquid Columns 113 Well Trajectory 353 
4.2 Hydrostatic Pressure in Gas Columns 114 8.3 Calculating the Trajectory of a Well 362 
4.3 Hydrostatic Pressure in Complex 8.4 Planning the Kickoff and 
Fluid Columns 115 Trajectory Change 366 
4.4 Annular Pressures During Well 8.5 Directional Drilling Measurements 377 
Control Operations 119 8.6 Deflection Tools 402 
4.5 Buoyancy 122 8.7 Principles of the BHA 426 
4.6 Nonstatic Well Conditions 127 8.8 Deviation Control 443 
4.7 Flow Through Jet Bits 129 Exercises 453 
4.8 Rheological Models 131 
4.9 Rotational Viscometer 135 Appendix A: Development of Equations for 
4.10 Laminar Flow in Pipes and Annuli 137 Non-Newtonian Liquids in a 
4.11 Turbulent Flow in Pipes and Annuli 144 Rotational Viscometer 
4.12 Initiating Circulation of the Well 154 Bingham Plastic Model 474 
4.13 Jet Bit Nozzle Size Selection 156 Power-Law Model 476 
4.14 Pump Pressure Schedules for Well 
Control Operations 162 Appendix B: Development of Slot Flow 
4.15 Surge Pressures Due to Vertical Approximations for Annular Flow 
Pipe Movement 164 for Non-Newtonian Fluids 
4.16 Particle Slip Velocity 173 Bingham Plastic Model 477 Exercises 183 Power-Law Model 481 
5. Rotary Drilling Bits 
5.1 Bit Types Available 190 Author Index 484 
5.2 Rock Failure Mechanisms 200 Subject Index 486 
• 
Chapter 1 
Rotary Drilling Process 
The objectives of this chapter are (I) to familiarize the 
student with the basic rotary drillinR equipment and 
operational procedures and (2) to introduce the stu-
dent to drillinR cost evaluation. 
1.1 Drilling Team 
The large investments required to drill for oil and gas 
are made primarily by oil companies. Small oil 
companies invest mostly in the shallow, less-
expensive wells drilled on land in the United States. 
Investments in expensive offshore and non-U.S. 
wells can be afforded only by large oil companies. 
Drilling costs have become so great in many areas 
that several major oil companies often will form 
groups to share the financial risk. 
Many specialized talents are required to drill a well 
safely and economically. As in most complex in-
dustries, many different service companies, con-
tractors, and consultants, each with its own 
organization, have evolved to provide necessary 
services and skills. Specialized groups within the 
major oil companies also have evolved. A staff of 
drilling engineers is generally identifiable as one of 
these groups. 
A well is classified as a wildcat well if its purpose is 
to discover a new petroleum reservoir. In contrast, 
the purpose of a development well is to exploit a 
known reservoir. Usually the geological group 
recommends wildcat well locations, while the 
reservoir engineering group recommends develop-
ment well locations. The drilling engineering group 
makes the preliminary well designs and cost estimates 
for the proposed well. The legal group secures the 
necessary drilling and production rights and 
establishes clear title and right-of-way for access. 
Surveyors establish and stake the well location. 
Usually the drilling is done by a drilling contractor. 
Once the decision to drill the well is made by 
management, the drilling engineering group prepares 
a more detailed well design and writes the bid 
specifications. The equipment and procedures that 
the operator will require, together with a well 
description, must be included in the bid 
specifications and drilling contract. In areas where 
previous experience has shown drilling to be routine, 
the bid basis may be the cost per foot of hole drilled: 
In areas where costs cannot be estimated with 
reasonable certainty, the bid basis is usually a 
contract price per day. In some cases, the bid is based 
on cost per foot down to a certain depth or formation 
and cost per day beyond that point. When the well is 
being financed by more than one company, the well 
plan and drilling contract must be approved by 
drilling engineers representing the various companies 
involved. 
Before the drilling contractor can begin, the 
surface location must be prepared to accommodate 
the specific rig. Water wells may have to be drilled to 
supply the requirements for the drilling operation. 
The surface preparation must be suited to local 
terrain and supply problems; thus, it varies widely 
from area to area. In the marshland of south 
Louisiana, drilling usually is performed using an 
inland barge. The only drillsite preparation required 
is the dredging of a slip to permit moving the barge to 
location. In contrast, drillsite preparation