Plastics Materials   Brydson

Plastics Materials Brydson


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PLASTICS 
MATERIALS 
SEVENTH EDITION 
J. A. Brydson 
Former Head of the Department of Physical Sciences 
and Technology, 
Polytechnic of North London (now known as the University of North London) 
f E I N E M A N N 
OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEW DELHI 
Butterworth-Heinemann 
Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 
225 Wildwood Avenue, Wobum, MA 01801-2041 
A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd 
A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group 
First published by Iliffe Books Ltd 1966 
Second edition 1969 
Reprinted 1970 
Third edition 1975 
Reprinted with revisions 1977 
Reprinted 1979 
Fourth edition published by Butterworth-Heinemann 1982 
Reprinted 1985 
Fifth edition 1989 
Reprinted 1991, 1993 
Sixth edition 1995 
Reprinted 1995, 1996, 1998 
Seventh edition 1999 
0 J. A. Brydson 1995, 1999 
All rights reserved. No part of this publication 
may be reproduced in any material form (including 
photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic 
means and whether or not transiently or incidentally 
to some other use of this publication) without the 
written permission of the copyright holder except in 
accordance with the provisions of the Copyright 
Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a 
licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 
90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W l P 9HE. 
Applications for the copyright holder\u2019s written permission 
to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed 
to the publisher 
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data 
Brydson, J. A. (John Andrew), 1932- 
Plastics materials. - 7th ed. 
1. Plastics 
I. Title 
668.4 
ISBN 0 7506 4132 0 
Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data 
Brydson, J. A. 
Plastics materia1slJ.A. Brydson. - 7th ed. 
p. cm. 
Includes bibliographical references and index. 
ISBN 0 7506 4132 0 (hbk.) 
1. Plastics. I. Title. 
TP1120 B7 99-30623 
668.4-dc21 CIP 
Composition by Genesis Typesetting, Laser Quay, Rochester, Kent 
Printed and bound in Great Britain by Biddles Lt4 Guildford and King\u2019s Lynn 
Contents 
Preface to the Seventh Edition 
Preface to the First Edition 
Acknowledgements for the Seventh Edition 
Abbreviations for Plastics and Rubbers 
1 The Historical Development of Plastics Materials 
1.1 Natural Plastics 
1.2 Parkesine and Celluloid 
1.4 
1.5 Developments since 1939 
1.6 Raw Materials for Plastics 
1.7 The Market for Plastics 
1.8 The Future for Plastics 
1.3 1900-1930 
The Evolution of the Vinyl Plastics 
2 The Chemical Nature of Plastics 
2.1 Introduction 
2.2 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Behaviour 
2.3 Further Consideration of Addition Polymerisation 
2.3.1 
2.3.2 Ionic polymerisation 
2.3.3 Ziegler-Natta and metallocene polymerisation 
Elementary kinetics of free-radical addition polymerisation 
2.4 Condensation Polymerisation 
3 States of Aggregation in Polymers 
3.1 Introduction 
3.2 Linear Amorphous Polymers 
3.2.1 
3.3 Crystalline Polymers 
3.3.1 Orientation and crystallisation 
3.3.2 Liquid crystal polymers 
Orientation in linear amorphous polymers 
3.4 Cross-linked Structures 
3.5 Polyblends 
3.6 Summary 
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vi Contents 
4 Relation of Structure to Thermal and Mechanical Properties 
4.1 Introduction 
4.2 Factors Affecting the Glass Transition Temperature 
4.3 Factors Affecting the Ability to Crystallise 
4.4 Factors Affecting the Crystalline Melting Point 
4.5 Some Individual Properties 
4.5.1 Melt viscosity 
4.5.2 Yield strength and modulus 
4.5.3 Density 
4.5.4 Impact strength 
5 Relation of Structure to Chemical Properties 
5.1 Introduction 
5.2 Chemical Bonds 
5.3 Polymer Solubility 
5.3.1 Plasticisers 
5.3.2 Extenders 
5.3.3 Determination of solubility parameter 
5.3.4 Thermodynamics and solubility 
Effects of Thermal, Photochemical and High-energy Radiation 
5.4 Chemical Reactivity 
5.5 
5.6 Aging and Weathering 
5.7 Diffusion and Permeability 
5.8 Toxicity 
5.9 Fire and Plastics 
6 Relation of Structure to Electrical and Optical Properties 
6.1 Introduction 
6.2 
6.3 
6.4 Electronic Applications of Polymers 
6.5 Electrically Conductive Polymers 
6.6 Optical Properties 
Appendix-Electrical Testing 
Dielectric Constant, Power Factor and Structure 
Some Quantitative Relationships of Dielectrics 
7 Additives for Plastics 
7.1 Introduction 
7.2 Fillers 
7.2.1 Coupling agents 
7.3 Plasticisers and Softeners 
7.4 Lubricants and Flow Promoters 
7.5 Anti-aging Additives 
7.5.1 Antioxidants 
7.5.2 Antiozonants 
7.5.3 Stabilisers against dehydrochlorination 
7.5.4 Ultraviolet absorbers and related materials 
7.6 Flame Retarders 
7.7 Colorants 
7.8 Blowing Agents 
7.9 Cross-linking Agents 
7.10 Photodegradants 
7.11 2-Oxazolines 
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Contents vii 
8 Principles of the Processing of Plastics 
8.1 Introduction 
8.2 Melt Processing of Thermoplastics 
8.2.1 Hygroscopic behaviour 
8.2.2 Granule characteristics 
8.2.3 
8.2.4 Thermal stability 
8.2.5 Flow properties 
8.2.5.1 Terminology 
8.2.5.2 Effect of environmental and molecular factors 
on viscous flow properties 
8.2.5.3 Flow in an injection mould 
8.2.5.4 Elastic effects in polymer melts 
8.2.6 Thermal properties affecting cooling 
8.2.7 Crystallisation 
8.2.8 Orientation and shrinkage 
Melt Processing of Thermosetting Plastics 
Processing in the Rubbery State 
Solution, Suspension and Casting Processes 
Thermal properties influencing polymer melting 
8.3 
8.4 
8.5 
8.6 Summary 
9 Principles of Product Design 
9.1 Introduction 
9.2 Rigidity of Plastics Materials 
9.2.1 The assessment of maximum service temperature 
9.2.1.1 Assessment of thermal stability 
9.2.1.2 Assessment of softening point 
The assessment of impact strength 
9.3 Toughness 
9.3.1 
9.4 Stress-Strain-Time Behaviour 
9.4.1 The WLF equations 
9.4.2 Creep curves 
9.4.3 
9.5 Recovery from Deformation 
9.6 Distortion, Voids and Frozen-in Stress 
9.7 Conclusions 
Practical assessment of long-term behaviour 
10 Polyethylene 
10.1 Introduction 
10.2 Preparation of Monomer 
10.3 Polymerisation 
10.3.1 High-pressure polymerisation 
10.3.2 Ziegler processes 
10.3.3 The Phillips process 
10.3.4 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) process 
10.3.5 Processes for making linear low-density polyethylene and 
metallocene polyethylene 
Structure and Properties of Polyethylene 
10.5.1 Mechanical properties 
10.5.2 Thermal properties 
10.5.3 Chemical properties 
10.5.4 Electrical properties 
10.5.5 
10.5.6 Properties of metallocene-catalysed polyethylenes 
10.4 
10.5 Properties of Polyethylene 
Properties of LLDPE and VLDPE 
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viii Contents 
10.6 Additives 
10.7 Processing 
10.8 
10.9 Cross-linked Polyethylene 
10.10 Chlorinated Polyethylene 
10.11 Applications 
Polyethylenes of Low and High Molecular Weight 
11 Aliphatic Polyolefins other than Polyethylene, and Diene Rubbers 
11.1 Polypropylene 
11.1.1 Preparation of polypropylene 
11.1.2 
11.1.3 Properties of isotactic polypropylene 
11.1.4 Additives for isotactic polypropylene