FACULDADE DE FILOSOFIA, LETRAS E CIÊNCIAS HUMANAS DA USP Departamento de Letras Modernas Área de Estudos Linguísticos e Literários em Inglês Introdução à poesia Professora Maria Silvia Betti Gabriela da Silva Santana No. USP 8572365 \u2013 Matutino FINAL EVALUATION As a popular artistic mode, ballads have shown vitality and persistence throughout different periods and literary styles, from the Middle Ages up to our modern days. Point out two of the recurrent characteristics of this verse form, and comment on their use in one specific example of ballad. A known characteristic about ballads is the oral tradition. The ballads use some resources to help memorization, what allowed sustain the oral tradition, as simple language, economy of words, set phrases, dramatic contrasts and a stock refrain. In Lord Rendall poem, we see all those elements together, for example, a regular chorus repeats at the end of each stanza, creating the stock refrain: \u201cFor I\u2019m wearied wi huntin, and fain wad lie down\u201d. "And what becam of them, Lord Randal, my son? And what becam of them, my handsome young man?" "They stretched their legs out and died; mother, mak my bed soon, For I'm wearied wi huntin, and fain wad lie down." The recent version of Scholl and Martin, 1996, keep this idea with the stock refrain, rhymes and simple language to be followed by music and help the memorization. What will you leave your brother Rendall my son? What will you leave your brother My pretty one? My cow and horses, mother My cow and horses, mother Make my bed soon for I\u2019m sick to my heart And I fain would lie down. It is interesting to see that new version has a considerable difference with the older version of what the chorus consists of. The 1996 version repeats the same chorus in all stanzas, while the older version changes the last chorus. Thus, it creates a suspense that he is not only tired of hunting, but that he has been poisoned by the lover and that he will die. This shows an important characteristic of ballads: the theme about sterner human realities of live. The ballads, especially folk ones, have this topic in circumstances of human life to survive \u2013 death, war, intrigue, betrayal, to name but a few. In Lord Randall, we could see clearly that: the son died, and the mom is concerned about survive. The ballad shows to us a social circumstance, but do not judge, it is just matter of fact. Popular ballads provide a useful way of exploring emotions in their cultural contexts across different time periods because of their long life-span, and because of the way they are shaped and molded by social beliefs during the processes of transmission. Both Shakespeare and John Donne dealt with the theme of finitude and of death in their sonnets. Pick up a sonnet by each of these poets and comment on the way their approach differs in terms of imagery and tone. William Shakespeare and John Donne are two very well-known poets in English poetry environment, the first of 16th century and the second of 17th century. They wrote poems which are read and study until nowadays. Their poetry is very similar in many ways but also have many contrasts. Focusing in the theme of finitude and of death both approach those themes but in diverse ways. While Shakespeare see death as natural, Donne cares about it metaphysical sense. Donne\u2019s Holy Sonnet X deals with death and the fear of dying whereas Shakespeare\u2019s Sonnet I does not literally approach death but the metaphorical death of beauty and passion. Sonnet 1 by William Shakespeare serves to introduce many of the themes which will echo through the rest of the collection. The writer dwells on beauty, virtue, self-consumption, and the passing of human life through time. In particular, Sonnet 1 (as well as many of the other sonnets) includes references to the love the writer holds for an unnamed young man. This young man is elevated above all else and praised. Shakespeare draws his imagery from everyday life in the world around him. In Sonnet I, he writes of beauty as something perishable, as a rose or a fresh ornament. By the time we reach the third quatrain, the poet has decided that \u2013 while the young man may indeed be beautiful \u2013 his subject will eventually lose his good looks. Even though the subject might be the \u201cworld\u2019s fresh ornament,\u201d he will only serve to \u201cherald the gaudy spring.\u201d Eventually, his beauty will fade and, if he does not pass on his beauty to the next generation, then he will be left with nothing. \u201cBud\u201d in this context calls back to the rose talked about in the second line. An enduring image of perfection, the rose is a metaphor for the idea of beauty. It blooms, is appreciated, and then fades away. Unless it passes on its genes to the next generation in the form of a \u201cbud,\u201d then the world will never again be able to enjoy the aesthetic quality of this particular rose. So, then, the rose becomes a warning, threatening the young man with the idea that he might wither and die himself. About tone, although there are many thoughts on this topic, one might argue that the tone of this sonnet is cautionary. If we look more closely, this poem has several moments to it, each of wich serves a different purpose, but ultimately moves the argument closer to its prophetic finish. On the other hand, Donne was obsessed with death. The Holy Sonnet X has got to be one of the most famous examples of personification and apostrophe in all of poetry. The speaker treats death like a person who is considered "mighty" and "dreadful," which is personification. And, he addresses this person-like Death directly, even though Death obviously can\u2019t respond, which is apostrophe. He paints a picture of Death as an arrogant being, and one who needs to be humbled. The speaker assumes the position of the one who must humble this being, Death. He tells him that he ought not to be so proud, even though for generations people have feared Death and called him \u201cmighty and dreadful\u201d. The speaker, however, with a voice of absolute authority on the matter, simply states, \u201cthou art not so\u201d. At the lines 9 and 10, he speaker takes on a stronger tone and begins to taunt Death with more ferocity than he did at first. Here, he calls Death a slave to \u201cchance, kings, and desperate men\u201d. He tells Death that he is not mighty and dreadful, but rather a poor slave who cannot even act on his own but is driven not only by fate and chance, but also by people, rich and poor alike\u201d. He then accuses Death of having lowly companions such as \u201cpoison, war, and sickness\u201d. He has taunted Death, telling him that he is not to be feared, but rather that he is a slave to the will of fate and men, and that as a lowly slave, his companions are the even lowlier beings such as sickness and war. Those accusations serve to allow the readers to feel a sense of power and victory over Death. The speaker certainly feels authority over Death, and he passes this feeling along to his readers when he puts Death in his place by talking down to him. For Shakespeare, poetry and art made things eternal. For John Done the poetry is more metaphysical. Both think about the finitude of life and the things that goes with it, but, in their own ways and beliefs, they expressed how they deal with the feelings that pop up when Death remind us of its existence.