956 pág.

Busheberg antigo

Disciplina:Radiodiagnóstico36 materiais194 seguidores
Pré-visualização50 páginas
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Foreword xix

Chapter 1: Introduction to Medical Imaging 3

1.1 The Modalities 4

1.2 Image Properties 13

Chapter 2: Radiation and the Atom 17

2.1 Radiation 17

2.2 Structure of the Atom 21

Chapter 3: Interaction of Radiation with Matter 31

3.1 Particle Interactions 31

3.2 X- and Gamma Ray Interactions 37

3.3 Attenuation of X- and Gamma Rays 45

3.4 Absorption of Energy from X- and Gamma Rays 52

3.5 Imparted Energy, Equivalent Dose, and Effective Dose 56

Chapter 4: Computers in Medical Imaging 61

4.1 Storage and Transfer of Data in Computers 61

4.2 Analog Data and Conversion between Analog and Digital Forms 66

4.3 Components and Operation of Computers 70

4.4 Performance of Computer Systems 78

4.5 Computer Software 79

4.6 Storage, Processing, and Display of Digital Images 82

Chapter 5: X-ray Production, X-ray Tubes, and Generators 97

5.1 Production of X-rays 97

5.2 X-ray Tubes 102

5.3 X-ray Tube Insert, Tube Housing, Filtration, and Collimation 113

5.4 X-ray Generator Function and Components 116

5.5 X-ray Generator Circuit Designs 124

5.6 Timing the X-ray Exposure in Radiography 132

5.7 Factors Affecting X-ray Emission 135

5.8 Power Ratings and Heat Loading 137

5.9 X-ray Exposure Rating Charts 140

Chapter 6: Screen-Film Radiography 145

6.1 Projection Radiography 145

6.2 Basic Geometric Principles 146

6.3 The Screen-Film Cassette 148

6.4 Characteristics of Screens 149

6.5 Characteristics of Film 157

6.6 The Screen-Film System 163

6.7 Contrast and Dose in Radiography 164

6.8 Scattered Radiation in Projection Radiography 166

Chapter 7: Film Processing 175

7.1 Film Exposure 175

7.2 The Film Processor 178

7.3 Processor Artifacts 181

7.4 Other Considerations 183

7.5 Laser Cameras 184

7.6 Dry Processing 184

7.7 Processor Quality Assurance 186

Chapter 8: Mammography 191

8.1 X-ray Tube Design 194

8.2 X-ray Generator and Phototimer System 204

8.3 Compression, Scattered Radiation, and Magnification 207

8.4 Screen-Film Cassettes and Film Processing 212

8.5 Ancillary Procedures 219

8.6 Radiation Dosimetry 222

8.7 Regulatory Requirements 224

Chapter 9: Fluoroscopy 231

9.1 Functionality 231

9.2 Fluoroscopic Imaging Chain Components 232

9.3 Peripheral Equipment 242

9.4 Fluoroscopy Modes of Operation 244

9.5 Automatic Brightness Control (ABC) 246

9.6 Image Quality 248

9.7 Fluoroscopy Suites 249

9.8 Radiation Dose 251

Chapter 10: Image Quality 255

10.1 Contrast 255

10.2 Spatial Resolution 263

10.3 Noise 273

10.4 Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) 283

10.5 Sampling and Aliasing in Digital Images 283

10.6 Contrast-Detail Curves 287

10.7 Receiver Operating Characteristics Curves 288

Chapter 11: Digital Radiography 293

11.1 Computed Radiography 293

11.2 Charged-Coupled Devices (CCDs) 297

11.3 Flat Panel Detectors 300

11.4 Digital Mammography 304

11.5 Digital versus Analog Processes 307

11.6 Implementation 307

11.7 Patient Dose Considerations 308

11.8 Hard Copy versus Soft Copy Display 308

11.9 Digital Image Processing 309

11.10 Contrast versus Spatial Resolution in Digital Imaging 315

Chapter 12: Adjuncts to Radiology 317

12.1 Geometric Tomography 317

12.2 Digital Tomosynthesis 320

12.3 Temporal Subtraction 321

12.4 Dual-Energy Subtraction 323

Chapter 13: Computed Tomography 327

13.1 Basic Principles 327

13.2 Geometry and Historical Development 331

13.3 Detectors and Detector Arrays 339

13.4 Details of Acquisition 342

13.5 Tomographic Reconstruction 346

13.6 Digital Image Display 358

13.7 Radiation Dose 362

13.8 Image Quality 367

13.9 Artifacts 369

Chapter 14: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 373

14.1 Magnetization Properties 373

14.2 Generation and Detection of the Magnetic Resonance Signal 381

14.3 Pulse Sequences 391

14.4 Spin Echo 391

14.5 Inversion Recovery 399

14.6 Gradient Recalled Echo 403

14.7 Signal from Flow 408

14.8 Perfusion and Diffusion Contrast 409

14.9 Magnetization Transfer Contrast 411

Chapter 15: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 415

15.1 Localization of the MR Signal 415

15.2 k-space Data Acquisition and Image Reconstruction 426

15.3 Three-Dimensional Fourier Transform Image Acquisition 438

15.4 Image Characteristics 439

15.5 Angiography and Magnetization Transfer Contrast 442

15.6 Artifacts 447

15.7 Instrumentation 458

15.8 Safety and Bioeffects 465

Chapter 16: Ultrasound 469

16.1 Characteristics of Sound 470

16.2 Interactions of Ultrasound with Matter 476

16.3 Transducers 483
16.4 Beam Properties 490

16.5 Image Data Acquisition 501

16.6 Two-Dimensional Image Display and Storage 510

16.7 Miscellaneous Issues 516

16.8 Image Quality and Artifacts 524

16.9 Doppler Ultrasound 531

16.10 System Performance and Quality Assurance 544

16.11 Acoustic Power and Bioeffects 548

Chapter 17: Computer Networks, PACS, and Teleradiology 555

17.1 Computer Networks 555

17.2 PACS and Teleradiology 565

Chapter 18: Radioactivity and Nuclear Transformation 589

18.1 Radionuclide Decay Terms and Relationships 589

18.2 Nuclear Transformation 593

Chapter 19: Radionuclide Production and Radiopharmaceuticals 603

19.1 Radionuclide Production 603

19.2 Radiopharmaceuticals 617

19.3 Regulatory Issues 624

Chapter 20: Radiation Detection and Measurement 627

20.1 Types of Detectors 627

20.2 Gas-Filled Detectors 632

20.3 Scintillation Detectors 636

20.4 Semiconductor Detectors 641

20.5 Pulse Height Spectroscopy 644

20.6 Non-Imaging Detector Applications Q54

20.7 Counting Statistics 661

Chapter 21: Nuclear Imaging-The Scintillation Camera 669

21.1 Planar Nuclear Imaging: The Anger Scintillation Camera 670

21.2 Computers in Nuclear Imaging 695

Chapter 22: Nuclear Imaging-Emission Tomography 703

22.1 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) 704

22.2 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 719

SECTION IV: RADIATION PROTECTION, DOSIMETRY, AND
BIOLOGY 737

Chapter 23: Radiation Protection 739

23.1 Sources of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation 739

23.2 Personnel Dosimetry 747

23.3 Radiation Detection Equipment in Radiation Safety 753

23.4 Radiation Protection and Exposure Control 755

23.5 Regulatory Agencies and Radiation Exposure Limits 788

Chapter 24: Radiation Dosimetry of the Patient 795

24.1 X-ray Dosimetry 800

24.2 Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry: The MIRD Method 805

Chapter 25: Radiation Biology 813

25.1 Interaction of Radiation with Tissue 814

25.2 Cellular Radiobiology 818

25.3 Response of Organ Systems to Radiation 827

25.4 Acute Radiation Syndrome 831

25.5 Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis 838

25.6 Hereditary Effects of Radiation Exposure 851

25.7 Radiation Effects In Utero 853

Appendix A: Fundamental Principles of Physics 865

A.l Physical Laws, Quantities, and Units 865

A.2 Classical Physics 867

A.3 Electricity and Magnetism 868

Appendix B: Physical Constants, Preftxes, Geometry, Conversion Factors, and
Radiologic Data 883

B.l Physical Constants, PrefIxes, and Geometry 883

B.2 Conversion Factors 884

B.3 Radiological Data for Elements 1 through 100 885

Appendix C: Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Spectra Data Tables 887

C.1 Mass Attenuation Coefficients for Selected Elements 887

C.2 Mass Attenuation Coefficients for Selected Compounds 889

C.3 Mass Energy Attenuation Coefficients for Selected Detector Compounds 890

C.4 Mammography Spectra: MolMo 891

C.5 Mammography Spectra: Mo/Rh 893

C.6 Mammography Spectra: Rh/Rh 895

C.7 General Diagnostic Spectra: W/Al 897

Appendix D: Radiopharmaceutical Characteristics and Dosimetry 899

0.1 Route of administration, localization, clinical utility, and other characteristics of
commonly used radiopharmaceuticals