Longman English Grammar Practice

Longman English Grammar Practice


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L O N G M A N 
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 
PRACTICE 
for intermediate students 
L. G. Alexander 
Addison Wesley Longman Limited 
Edinbur h Gate, Harlow, 
Essex 8 ~ 2 0 ZJE, England 
and Associated Companies throughout the world. 
0 Longman Group UK Limited 1990 
All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be 
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted 
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, 
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without 
the prior written permission of the Publjshers. 
Distributed in the United States of American by 
Addison Wesley Longman, New York 
First published 1990 
Eleventh impression 1998 
Cartoons by Larry, Ed Mclaughlin and David Simonds 
Bri t ish Library Cataloguing i n Publ icat ion Data 
Alexander, L. G. (Louis George) 1932- 
Longman English grammar practice (Intermediate level) 
1. English language. Grammar 
I. Title 
428.2 
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publ icat ion Data 
Alexander, L. G. 
Longman English gmmmar practice (Intermed~ate level) 1 L G Alexander. 
p. cm. 
1. English language - Textbooks for fore~gn speakers 
2. Engl~sh language - Grammar - 1950 - Problems, exercises, etc i T~tle 
PEll28.A4573 1990 
428.2'4-&20 89-13851 
CIP 
Set in 9111.5 pt. Linotron Helvetica Roman 
Produced through Longman Malaysia, ACM 
ISBN 0 582 04500 2 
Contents 
To the student 
The sentence 
Sentence word order 
The simple sentence: verbs with and without objects 
The simple sentence: direct and indirect objects 
The compound sentence 
The complex sentence: noun clauses 
The complex sentence: relative pronouns and clauses 
The complex sentence: 'whose'; defininglnon-defining clauses 
The complex sentence: time, place, manner 
The complex sentence: reason and contrast 
The complex sentence: purpose, result and comparison 
The complex sentence: present participle constructions 
The complex sentence: perfectlpast participle constructions 
Nouns 
One-word nouns 
Compound nouns 
Countable and uncountable nouns ( I ) 
Countable and uncountable nouns (2) 
Number (singular and plural) (1) 
Number (singular and plural) (2) 
Gender 
The genitive 
Articles 7 - 
The indefinite article: 'dan' (1) 
The indefinite article: Wan' (2) 
The definite article: 'the' (1) 
The definite article: 'the' (2) 
The zero article (1 ) 
The zero article (2) 
Pronouns 
Personal pronouns 
'One' 
'It' and 'onelsomelanylnone' 
Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns ('mylmine') 
Reflexive pronouns ('myself') 
Demonstrative adjslprons ('this'); 'somelanylno' compounds ('someone') 
Quantity 
Quantifiers + countable and uncountable nouns 
General and specific references to quantity 
Uses of 'some', 'any', 'no' and 'none' 
'Much', 'many', 'a lot of', '(a) few', '(a) little', 'fewer', 'less' 
'Both' and 'all' 
'All (the)', '(dthe) whole', 'each' and 'every' 
'Another', '(the) other(s)', 'either', 'neither', 'each (one of)' 
Contents 
Adjectives 
Formation of adjectives 
Position of adjectives 
Adjectives that behave like nouns; '-edl-ing' endings 
Adjectives after 'be', 'seem', etc.; word order of adjectives 
The comparison of adjectives 
Adverbs 
Adverbs of manner 
Adverbs of time 
Adverbial phrases of duration 
Adverbs of frequency 
Adverbs of degree 
Intensifiers 
Focus adverbs 
Viewpoint adverbs, connecting adverbs and inversion 
Prepositions, adverb particles and phrasal verbs 
Prepositions, adverb particles and conjunctions 
Prepositions of movement and position; prepositions of time 
Particular prepositions, particles: contrasts (1 ) 
Particular prepositions, particles: contrasts (2) 
Particular prepositions, particles: contrasts (3) 
Phrasal verbs: Type 1, verb + preposition (transitive) 
Phrasal verbs: Type 2, verb + particle (transitive) 
Phrasal verbs: Type 3, verb + particle (intransitive) 
Type 4, verb + particle + preposition (transitive) 
Verbs, verb tenses, imperatives 
The simple present and present progressive tenses (1) 
The simple present and present progressive tenses (2) 
The simple past tense 
The simple past and past progressive tenses 
The simple present perfect and present perfect progressive 
The simple past perfect and past perfect progressive tenses 
The simple future tense 
The simple future, the future progressive, the future perfect 
'Going to' and other ways of expressing the future 
The imperative 
Be, Have, Do 
'Be' as a full verb (1) 
'Be' as a full verb (2) 
'There' + 'be' 
Verbs related in meaning to 'be' 
'Have' as a full verb = 'possess'; 'have got' = 'possess' 
'Have' as a full verb meaning 'eat', 'enjoy', etc. 
'Do' as a full verb 
Modal auxiliaries and related verbs 
The two uses of modal verbs 
Uses of modals (etc.) to express ability and inability 
Uses of modals (etc.) to express permission and prohibition 
Contents 
11.4 Uses of modals (etc.) to express certainty and possibility 
11.5 Uses of modals to express deduction 
11.6 Uses of modals for offers, requests and suggestions 
11.7 Expressing wishes, etc.: 'I wish', 'if only', 'it's (high) time' 
11.8 Expressing preferences: 'would rather' and 'would sooner' 
11.9 'It's advisable ...' l'lt's necessary ...' 
11.10 'It isn't advisable ...' /'It isn't necessary ...' /'It's forbidden' 
11 . I 1 Modals to express habit: 'used to', 'will' and 'would' 
11.12 'Need' and 'dare' as modals and as full verbs 
11.13 'Wouldlwouldn't'; 'that ... should'; 'there' + modal 
The passive and the causative 
General information about form 
Uses of the passive 
Form and use of the causative 
Questions, answers, negatives 
YesINo questions, negative statements, YesINo answers 
Alternative negative forms and negative questions 
Tag questions and echo tags 
Additions and responses 
Question-word questions (1): 'Who(m) ... ?', 'What ... ?' 
Question-word questions (2): 'When?', 'Where?', 'Which?', 'Whose?' 
Question-word questions (3): 'Why?', 'How?' 
Subject-questions: 'Who?', 'What?', 'Which?', 'Whose?' 
Questions about alternatives; emphatic questions with 'ever' 
Conditional sentences 
Type 1 conditionals- 
Type 2 conditionals ' 
Type 3 conditionals 
Mixed conditionals; 'unlesslif ... not', etc. 
Direct and indirect speech 
Direct speech 
'Say', 'tell' and 'ask' 
lndirect statements with tense changes 
Indirect questions with tense changes 
Uses of the to-infinitive in indirect speech 
When we use indirect speech 
The infinitive and the '-ing' form 
The bare infinitive and the toinfinitive 
The bare infinitive or the '-ing' form; the toinfinitive 
Verb (+ nounlpronoun) + toinfinitive 
Adjectives and nouns + toinfinitive 
The '-ing' form 
Verb + the '-ing' form 
Adjectives, nouns and prepositions + '-ing' 
The toinfinitive or the '-ing' form? 
Index 
Key 
Acknowledgements 
Different versions of these materials were tried out with students in five countries. The book is in its 
present form partly as a result of the useful reports and in many cases the very detailed comments 
received while the work was being developed. I would like to thank the following: 
Brazil 
Germany 
Greece 
Italy 
United Kingdom 
Vera Regina de A Couto and staff Cultura Inglesa, Rio 
Rosa Lenzuen 
Louise Towersey 
Michael Watkins Cultura Inglesa, Curitiba 
Werner Kieweg University of Munich 
Norman Lewis , Gymnasium Wildeshausen 
Robert Nowacek Volkshochschule, Kaufbeuren 
Sandra Klapsis Homer Association, Athens 
Joanna Malliou 
George Rigas The Morai'tis School, Athens 
Paola Giovamma Ottolino Liceo Linguistico, A. Manzoni, Milano 
Sue Boardman Bell School, Saffron Walden 
Pat Lodge 
Alan Fortune Ealing cdllege of Higher Education 
Mary Stephens Eurocentre, Bournemouth 
M. Milmo Eurocentre, Lee Green 
Steve Moore 
Jennifer Swift 
Ann Timson 
Josephine von Waskowski 
I would also like to thank: 
- Donald Adamson