Longman English Grammar Practice
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Longman English Grammar Practice


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L O N G M A N
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
PRACTICE
for intermediate students

L. G. Alexander

Addison Wesley Longman Limited
Edinbur h Gate, Harlow,
Essex 8 ~ 2 0 ZJE, England
and Associated Companies throughout the world.

0 Longman Group UK Limited 1990
All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without
the prior written permission of the Publjshers.
Distributed in the United States of American by
Addison Wesley Longman, New York

First published 1990
Eleventh impression 1998

Cartoons by Larry, Ed Mclaughlin and David Simonds

Bri t ish Library Cataloguing i n Publ icat ion Data
Alexander, L. G. (Louis George) 1932-

Longman English grammar practice (Intermediate level)
1. English language. Grammar
I. Title
428.2

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publ icat ion Data
Alexander, L. G.

Longman English gmmmar practice (Intermed~ate level) 1 L G Alexander.
p. cm.
1. English language - Textbooks for fore~gn speakers
2. Engl~sh language - Grammar - 1950 - Problems, exercises, etc i T~tle
PEll28.A4573 1990
428.2'4-&20 89-13851

CIP

Set in 9111.5 pt. Linotron Helvetica Roman

Produced through Longman Malaysia, ACM

ISBN 0 582 04500 2

Contents
To the student

The sentence
Sentence word order
The simple sentence: verbs with and without objects
The simple sentence: direct and indirect objects
The compound sentence
The complex sentence: noun clauses
The complex sentence: relative pronouns and clauses
The complex sentence: 'whose'; defininglnon-defining clauses
The complex sentence: time, place, manner
The complex sentence: reason and contrast
The complex sentence: purpose, result and comparison
The complex sentence: present participle constructions
The complex sentence: perfectlpast participle constructions

Nouns
One-word nouns
Compound nouns
Countable and uncountable nouns ( I )
Countable and uncountable nouns (2)
Number (singular and plural) (1)
Number (singular and plural) (2)
Gender
The genitive

Articles 7 -
The indefinite article: 'dan' (1)
The indefinite article: Wan' (2)
The definite article: 'the' (1)
The definite article: 'the' (2)
The zero article (1 )
The zero article (2)
Pronouns
Personal pronouns
'One'
'It' and 'onelsomelanylnone'

Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns ('mylmine')
Reflexive pronouns ('myself')
Demonstrative adjslprons ('this'); 'somelanylno' compounds ('someone')

Quantity
Quantifiers + countable and uncountable nouns
General and specific references to quantity
Uses of 'some', 'any', 'no' and 'none'
'Much', 'many', 'a lot of', '(a) few', '(a) little', 'fewer', 'less'
'Both' and 'all'
'All (the)', '(dthe) whole', 'each' and 'every'
'Another', '(the) other(s)', 'either', 'neither', 'each (one of)'

Contents

Adjectives
Formation of adjectives
Position of adjectives
Adjectives that behave like nouns; '-edl-ing' endings
Adjectives after 'be', 'seem', etc.; word order of adjectives
The comparison of adjectives

Adverbs
Adverbs of manner
Adverbs of time
Adverbial phrases of duration
Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of degree
Intensifiers
Focus adverbs
Viewpoint adverbs, connecting adverbs and inversion

Prepositions, adverb particles and phrasal verbs
Prepositions, adverb particles and conjunctions
Prepositions of movement and position; prepositions of time
Particular prepositions, particles: contrasts (1 )
Particular prepositions, particles: contrasts (2)
Particular prepositions, particles: contrasts (3)
Phrasal verbs: Type 1, verb + preposition (transitive)
Phrasal verbs: Type 2, verb + particle (transitive)
Phrasal verbs: Type 3, verb + particle (intransitive)

Type 4, verb + particle + preposition (transitive)

Verbs, verb tenses, imperatives
The simple present and present progressive tenses (1)
The simple present and present progressive tenses (2)
The simple past tense
The simple past and past progressive tenses
The simple present perfect and present perfect progressive
The simple past perfect and past perfect progressive tenses
The simple future tense
The simple future, the future progressive, the future perfect
'Going to' and other ways of expressing the future
The imperative

Be, Have, Do
'Be' as a full verb (1)
'Be' as a full verb (2)
'There' + 'be'
Verbs related in meaning to 'be'
'Have' as a full verb = 'possess'; 'have got' = 'possess'
'Have' as a full verb meaning 'eat', 'enjoy', etc.
'Do' as a full verb

Modal auxiliaries and related verbs
The two uses of modal verbs
Uses of modals (etc.) to express ability and inability
Uses of modals (etc.) to express permission and prohibition

Contents

11.4 Uses of modals (etc.) to express certainty and possibility
11.5 Uses of modals to express deduction
11.6 Uses of modals for offers, requests and suggestions
11.7 Expressing wishes, etc.: 'I wish', 'if only', 'it's (high) time'
11.8 Expressing preferences: 'would rather' and 'would sooner'
11.9 'It's advisable ...' l'lt's necessary ...'
11.10 'It isn't advisable ...' /'It isn't necessary ...' /'It's forbidden'
11 . I 1 Modals to express habit: 'used to', 'will' and 'would'
11.12 'Need' and 'dare' as modals and as full verbs
11.13 'Wouldlwouldn't'; 'that ... should'; 'there' + modal

The passive and the causative
General information about form
Uses of the passive
Form and use of the causative

Questions, answers, negatives
YesINo questions, negative statements, YesINo answers
Alternative negative forms and negative questions
Tag questions and echo tags
Additions and responses
Question-word questions (1): 'Who(m) ... ?', 'What ... ?'
Question-word questions (2): 'When?', 'Where?', 'Which?', 'Whose?'
Question-word questions (3): 'Why?', 'How?'
Subject-questions: 'Who?', 'What?', 'Which?', 'Whose?'
Questions about alternatives; emphatic questions with 'ever'

Conditional sentences
Type 1 conditionals-
Type 2 conditionals '
Type 3 conditionals
Mixed conditionals; 'unlesslif ... not', etc.

Direct and indirect speech
Direct speech
'Say', 'tell' and 'ask'
lndirect statements with tense changes
Indirect questions with tense changes
Uses of the to-infinitive in indirect speech
When we use indirect speech

The infinitive and the '-ing' form
The bare infinitive and the toinfinitive
The bare infinitive or the '-ing' form; the toinfinitive
Verb (+ nounlpronoun) + toinfinitive
Adjectives and nouns + toinfinitive
The '-ing' form
Verb + the '-ing' form
Adjectives, nouns and prepositions + '-ing'
The toinfinitive or the '-ing' form?

Index

Key

Acknowledgements
Different versions of these materials were tried out with students in five countries. The book is in its
present form partly as a result of the useful reports and in many cases the very detailed comments
received while the work was being developed. I would like to thank the following:

Brazil

Germany

Greece

Italy
United Kingdom

Vera Regina de A Couto and staff Cultura Inglesa, Rio
Rosa Lenzuen
Louise Towersey
Michael Watkins Cultura Inglesa, Curitiba
Werner Kieweg University of Munich
Norman Lewis , Gymnasium Wildeshausen
Robert Nowacek Volkshochschule, Kaufbeuren

Sandra Klapsis Homer Association, Athens
Joanna Malliou
George Rigas The Morai'tis School, Athens
Paola Giovamma Ottolino Liceo Linguistico, A. Manzoni, Milano
Sue Boardman Bell School, Saffron Walden
Pat Lodge
Alan Fortune Ealing cdllege of Higher Education
Mary Stephens Eurocentre, Bournemouth
M. Milmo Eurocentre, Lee Green
Steve Moore
Jennifer Swift
Ann Timson
Josephine von Waskowski

I would also like to thank:
- Donald Adamson