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0478.The Agrochemical and Pesticides Safety Handbook by Michael F. Waxman

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During the past ten years several important new and revised regulations
have been issued. These regulations have mandated new certifications and
training for those involved directly or indirectly with the application of pesti-
cides. In addition, in 1992, EPA issued the Worker Protection Standard which
mandated training for all agricultural workers and pesticide handlers and de-
tailed the content of such training.
The Agr ochemical an d Pesticide Safety Handb ook was designed to prov ide
pesticide users, manufacturers, and formulators with additional “reader-friendly”
knowledge on the safe use of agrochemicals and pesticides and information
and recommendations which provide the reader with preventive measures and
guidance during the initial stages of inciden ts inv olving agr ochemicals and pes ti-
cid es, when the correct, rapid responses can prevent a major problem. The
P es ticid e an d Chemical G u id es co ntain imp or tan t inf or matio n o n mo re t h a n 
500 pesticides and 100 agrochemicals.
The handbook is composed of two parts. Part One provides the reader
with valuable information on all aspects of pesticides. This section helps the
reader recognize that pesticides and certain agrochemicals are essential tools
in the control of most pests and that the safe use of these chemicals is an es-
sential element in this control.
Part Two provides the reader with the necessary information needed to
apply, store, and dispose of specific pesticides and other hazardous agro-
chemicals properly. Emergency guidelines and first aid procedures are also
provided in the context of handling incidents such as fires, spills and clean-up.
Part One:
Chapter 1 discusses the market for pesticides. It reviews the current mar-
ket status and its future trends.
Chapter 2 reviews the pertinent government regulations issued by the
regulating agencies (such as U.S. EPA, OSHA, and the Department of Agri-
culture) and how these regulations impact various industries and their person-
The different types or groups of pests are defined and the various pest
control methods for each group are discussed in Chapter 3.
Chapter 4 des cr ib es th e d if feren t fo r mu latio ns u s ed to p repar e th e f in is h ed 
pesticide and the beneficial qualities imparted by using different additives in
the formulation. This chapter also discusses the pros and cons of the different
Michael F. Waxman
formulations and their specific applications. In addition, the chapter covers
the methods and mathematical equations used to calculate the correct amounts
and rates of application for various types of equipment.
Chapter 5 discusses the different pesticide classification schemes, the dif-
ferent methods used to estimate their toxicity, and the specific mode of action
of the different chemical groups of pesticides. This chapter also discusses the
three main functional groups of pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and fungi-
cides) and the characteristics of various products in each group.
Pesticide handling activities and the recommended personal protective
equipment (PPE) are addressed in Chapter 6. Pesticide storage, disposal, and
spill management are also covered in this chapter.
Chapter 7 describes the harmful effects of pesticides and the recom-
mended first aid treatments. In addition, heat stress and ways to manage work
activities to minimize heat illness are also discussed.
The different types of equipment used to apply pesticides and their ad-
vantages and limitations are addressed in Chapter 8. This chapter also dis-
cusses the different parts of the application equipment and their selection and
The last chapter, Chapter 9, discusses the environmental effects of pesti-
cides. The topics covered include; sources of contamination, pesticide fate
and transport, and endangered species.
Part Two:
Pesticide and Chemical Tables
There are three important tables in Part Two. The first of these, Table 1,
lists the trade names or brands of pesticides of current importance alphabeti-
cally and assigns a pesticide guide to each product.
Table 2 provides the user with the common name, and the family or
group of chemicals that the chemical belongs to or is derived from.
Table 3 lists alphabetically the chemicals that are important to users of
pesticides and assigns a chemical guide to each item in the table.
Pesticide and Chemical Guides:
The pesticides listed under trade name in Tables 1 and 2 have each been
assigned to a specific pesticide guide. These guides assist the user in handling
various tasks from mixing and applying pesticides to cleaning up spilled pes-
ticide and disposing of the waste properly.
Over 500 formulated pesticides are listed in Tables 1 and 2. In order to
provide usable information, these pesticides are organized into groups of pes-
ticides with similar attributes and hazards. Each group was defined by these
attributes and hazards and a guide was developed to provide pertinent infor-
mation for each group. As a result there are 61 unique pesticide guides.
The agrochemicals (over 100) were treated in a similar fashion and 18
unique chemical guides were developed to provide similar information.
Finally, a glossary has been developed to assist the reader define the vari-
ous terms and acronyms used throughout the handbook.
The information in this book is focused toward those involved in hand-
ling, mixing, and applying pesticides. It should be especially useful to com-
mercial pesticide applicators, formulators, and handlers as well as employees
of city, county, state, and federal agencies. Pesticide dealers, salespeople,
consultants, and trainers should also find it helpful in their work.
The writing of this textbook required approximately one year, but during
that period much time and effort was devoted to this project. Even though it
is part of each faculty member’s duties to transfer technology or impart
knowledge gained from the University to the communities which it serves, I
would like to acknowledge the Department of Engineering Professional De-
velopment and the University of Wisconsin-Madison for supporting my ef-
forts and allowing the resources to complete this work.
The information and illustrations for this text were drawn from many
sources including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the State of
Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection, Uni-
versity of Wisconsin-Extension, Michigan State University, Fire Protection
Association, Abbott Laboratories, AgrEvo USA Company, BSAF Corpora-
tion, Ciba-Geigy Corporation, Cyanamid Company, DowElanco, DuPont, ISK
Biotech Corporation, FMC Corporation, Growmark, Micro Flo Corporation,
Monsanto Company, Rhone-Poulenc, Sandoz Agro, Inc., Terra International,
Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Company, and Zeneca Ag Products.
I have tried to acknowledge all illustrations and materials, but I may have
inadvertently missed a source because of the extensive interchange of materi-
als with the agencies, organizations, and companies mentioned above.
And finally, a special debt of gratitude is due to my wife, Barbara, for her
patience and understanding during the preparation of this manuscript and for
her encouragement that enabled me to see it through to fruition.
A. Current Status
B. Future Trends
A. Insecticide Act
B. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
C. Hazard Communication Standard (HAZCOM)
D. The Endangered Species Act
E. Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
Act (1986)
F. Agriculture Chemicals in Groundwater:
Pesticide Strategy
G. Safe Drinking Water Act (1974)
H. Clean Water Act

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