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(SpringerBriefs in Reproductive Biology) Denny Sakkas, Mandy G Katz Jaffe, Carlos E Sueldo (auth.) Gamete and Embryo Selection  Genomics, Metabolomics and Morphological Assessment Springer New York (2

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SpringerBriefs in Reproductive Biology
SpringerBriefs in Reproductive Biology is an exciting new series of concise pub-
lications of cutting-edge research and practical applications in Reproductive Biol-
ogy. Reproductive Biology is the study of the reproductive system and sex organs. 
It is closely related to reproductive endocrinology and infertility. The series covers 
topics such as assisted reproductive technologies, fertility preservation, in vitro fer-
tilization, reproductive hormones, and genetics, and features titles by the field’s top 
researchers.
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Denny Sakkas • Mandy G Katz-Jaffe 
Carlos E Sueldo 
Gamete and Embryo 
Selection
Genomics, Metabolomics and Morphological 
Assessment
1 3
ISSN 2194-4253 ISSN 2194-4261 (electronic)
ISBN 978-1-4939-0988-9 ISBN 978-1-4939-0989-6 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-0989-6
Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London
Library of Congress Control Number: 2014941944
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
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Denny Sakkas
Boston IVF Inc.
Waltham
Massachusetts
USA
Mandy G Katz-Jaffe
National Foundation for Fertility Research
Lone Tree
Colorado 
USA
Carlos E Sueldo
Univ. California San Francisco-Fresno, 
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Fresno,
California
USA
v
Contents
Morphological and Metabolic Assessment of Oocytes and Embryos ......... 1
Denny Sakkas
Introduction ................................................................................................. 1
The Changing Practice of IVF Will Challenge Classic 
Morphological Assessment ......................................................................... 2
Cleavage Stage Assessment ................................................................. 3
The Blastocyst ..................................................................................... 4
Real Time Morphology ............................................................................... 5
Embryo Metabolism as a Means of Assessing Viability ............................. 6
Glucose ................................................................................................ 6
Metabolomics ...................................................................................... 7
Oxygen and Reactive Oxygen Species ................................................ 9
Conclusion ................................................................................................... 9
References ................................................................................................... 10
Diagnostic Techniques to Improve the Assessment of Human 
IVF Embryos: Genomics and Proteomics ..................................................... 15
Mandy G Katz-Jaffe
Introduction ................................................................................................. 15
Genomics ..................................................................................................... 15
PGD for Aneuploidy Screening ........................................................... 16
When should an Embryo be Biopsied? ............................................... 16
Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy of Comprehensive 
Chromosome Screening ....................................................................... 19
Proteomics ................................................................................................... 21
Non-Invasive Proteomic Secretome Approach ................................... 21
Mass Spectrometry Analysis of the Embryo Secretome ..................... 22
Protein Microarray Analysis of the Embryo Secretome ...................... 24
Conclusions ................................................................................................. 24
References ................................................................................................... 25
vi Contents
Assessment and Selection of Human Sperm for ART .................................. 29
Carlos E Sueldo
Introduction ................................................................................................. 29
Sperm DNA Fragmentation ......................................................................... 29
How to Test for Human Sperm DNA Fragmentation? ................................ 31
Sperm Morphology Assessment Beyond Kruger ........................................ 33
Analysis of New Techniques of Sperm Selection ....................................... 35
Conclusions ................................................................................................. 39
References .................................................................................................... 40
vii
List of Authors
Denny Sakkas Boston IVF, Waltham, MA, USA
Mandy G Katz-Jaffe National Foundation for Fertility Research, Lone Tree, 
CO, USA
Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine, Lone Tree, USA
Carlos E Sueldo Univ. California San Francisco-Fresno, Department of Obstetrics 
and Gynecology, Fresno, CA, USA
1
Morphological and Metabolic Assessment 
of Oocytes and Embryos
Denny Sakkas
D. Sakkas et al., Gamete and Embryo Selection, SpringerBriefs in Reproductive Biology, 
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-0989-6_1, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Introduction
The non-invasive assessment of preimplantation embryos has been largely limited 
to the use of morphology and has become the primary tool of the embryologist for 
selecting which embryo(s) to replace. Since the early years of in vitro fertilization 
(IVF) it was noted that embryos cleaving faster and those of better morphologi-
cal appearance were more likely to lead to a pregnancy. Indeed, Edwards and col-
leagues noted only a few years after the birth of Louise Brown “that cleavage rates 
on a certain day and overall embryo morphology were valuable in choosing which 
embryo to transfer” [1]. In 1986,

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