01 Tutorial C++
144 pág.

01 Tutorial C++


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cplusplus.com 
C++ Language Tutorial 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Written by: Juan Soulié 
Last revision: June, 2007 
 
 
 
Available online at: http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/ 
 The online version is constantly revised and may contain corrections and changes 
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Table of contents 
Table of contents ...............................................................................................................................3 
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................5 
Instructions for use ................................................................................................................................... 5 
Basics of C++ ......................................................................................................................................7 
Structure of a program ............................................................................................................................. 7 
Variables. Data Types. ............................................................................................................................. 11 
Constants ................................................................................................................................................ 17 
Operators ................................................................................................................................................ 21 
Basic Input/Output .................................................................................................................................. 29 
Control Structures ............................................................................................................................ 34 
Control Structures ................................................................................................................................... 34 
Functions (I) ............................................................................................................................................ 41 
Functions (II) ........................................................................................................................................... 47 
Compound data types ...................................................................................................................... 54 
Arrays ...................................................................................................................................................... 54 
Character Sequences .............................................................................................................................. 60 
Pointers ................................................................................................................................................... 63 
Dynamic Memory .................................................................................................................................... 74 
Data structures........................................................................................................................................ 77 
Other Data Types .................................................................................................................................... 82 
Object Oriented Programming .......................................................................................................... 86 
Classes (I)................................................................................................................................................. 86 
Classes (II) ............................................................................................................................................... 95 
Friendship and inheritance ................................................................................................................... 100 
Polymorphism ....................................................................................................................................... 107 
Advanced concepts ........................................................................................................................ 113 
Templates.............................................................................................................................................. 113 
Namespaces .......................................................................................................................................... 120 
Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................. 123 
Type Casting .......................................................................................................................................... 127 
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Preprocessor directives ......................................................................................................................... 133 
C++ Standard Library ...................................................................................................................... 138 
Input/Output with files ......................................................................................................................... 138 
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Introduction 
Instructions for use 
To whom is this tutorial directed? 
This tutorial is for those people who want to learn programming in C++ and do not necessarily have any previous 
knowledge of other programming languages. Of course any knowledge of other programming languages or any 
general computer skill can be useful to better understand this tutorial, although it is not essential. 
It is also suitable for those who need a little update on the new features the language has acquired from the latest 
standards. 
If you are familiar with the C language, you can take the first 3 parts of this tutorial as a review of concepts, since 
they mainly explain the C part of C++. There are slight differences in the C++ syntax for some C features, so I 
recommend you its reading anyway. 
The 4th part describes object-oriented programming. 
The 5th part mostly describes the new features introduced by ANSI-C++ standard. 
Structure of this tutorial 
The tutorial is divided in 6 parts and each part is divided on its turn into different sections covering a topic each 
one. You can access any section directly from the section index available on the left side bar, or begin the tutorial 
from any point and follow the links at the bottom of each section.