Environmetal Soil Properties and Behaviour

Environmetal Soil Properties and Behaviour


DisciplinaControle e Remediação da Poluição dos Solos5 materiais18 seguidores
Pré-visualização50 páginas
K12014_cover 1/20/12 9:19 AM Page 1 
Composite
C M Y CM MY CY CMY K
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
From bridges and tunnels to nuclear waste repositories, structures require that soils
maintain their design engineering properties if the structures are to reach their projected
life spans. The same is true for earth dams, levees, buffers, barriers for landfills, and
other structures that use soils as engineered materials. Yet soil, a natural resource,
continues to change as a result of natural and anthropogenic stresses. As the discipline
of soil properties and behaviours matures, new tools and techniques are making it
possible to study these properties and behaviours in more depth.
Environmental Soil Properties and Behaviour examines changes in soil properties
and behaviour caused by short- and long-term stresses from anthropogenic activities
and environmental forces. Introducing new concepts of soil behaviour, soil maturation,
and soil functionality, it integrates soil physics, soil chemistry, and soil mechanics as
vital factors in soil engineering. The book focuses on environmental soil behaviour,
with particular attention to two main inter-related groups of soil\u2013environment issues.
The first is the use of soil as an environmental tool for management and containment
of toxic and hazardous waste materials. The second is the impact of ageing and
weathering processes and soil contamination on the properties and behaviour of soils,
especially those used in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering projects.
To determine short- and long-term soil quality and soil functionality, the authors
emphasize the need to be aware of the nature of the stressors involved as well as
the kinds of soil-changing processes that are evoked. This book takes a first step
toward a much-needed transdisciplinary effort to develop a broader and deeper
understanding of what happens to soil and how we can determine and quantify the
effect of biogeochemical processes. It offers a timely resource for the study of soil
properties and behaviours, effects of environmental changes, and remediation of
contaminated soil.
w w w. c rc p r e s s . c o m
an informa business
6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW
Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487
711 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10017
2 Park Square, Milton Park
Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN, UK w w w . c r c p r e s s . c o m
K12014
ENVIRONMENTAL
SOIL PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOUR
ENVIRONM
ENTAL SOIL PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOUR
Yong
Nakano
Pusch
ENVIRONMENTAL
SOIL PROPERTIES
AND BEHAVIOUR
This page intentionally left blankThis page intentionally left blank
Raymond N. Yong
Masashi Nakano
Roland Pusch
ENVIRONMENTAL
SOIL PROPERTIES
AND BEHAVIOUR
CRC Press is an imprint of the
Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
Boca Raton London New York
CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group
6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300
Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742
© 2012 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
No claim to original U.S. Government works
Version Date: 20111221
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4398-4530-1 (eBook - PDF)
This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts 
have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume 
responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers 
have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to 
copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has 
not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint.
Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmit-
ted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, 
including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, 
without written permission from the publishers.
For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.
com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood 
Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and 
registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, 
a separate system of payment has been arranged.
Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used 
only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.
Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at
http://www.taylorandfrancis.com
and the CRC Press Web site at
http://www.crcpress.com
v
Contents
Preface .....................................................................................................................xv
The Authors ......................................................................................................... xix
 1. Origin and Function of Soils........................................................................1
1.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................1
1.1.1 Why Are We Concerned with Environmental Issues? .......1
1.2 Soil Origin and Formation ...................................................................2
1.2.1 Parent Material .........................................................................2
1.2.2 Weathering of Rock .................................................................3
1.2.2.1 Natural Processes .....................................................3
1.2.2.2 Physical Weathering ................................................4
1.2.2.3 Chemical Weathering ..............................................4
1.2.3 Processes of Chemical Weathering .......................................6
1.2.4 Parent Material and Other Influences...................................7
1.2.4.1 Parent Material .........................................................7
1.2.4.2 Climate and Vegetation ...........................................7
1.2.4.3 Topography and Time .............................................8
1.3 Soil Classification ..................................................................................8
1.3.1 Subdivision of Surficial Deposits ...........................................9
1.3.2 Soil Horizons ............................................................................9
1.3.3 Classification for Engineering Purposes ............................ 11
1.3.3.1 Particle-Size Differentiation and 
Textural Classification ........................................... 12
1.3.3.2 Particle-Size Distribution Curves ........................ 13
1.3.3.3 Atterberg Limits Classification ............................ 14
1.3.3.4 Unified Soil Classification System ....................... 15
1.4 Basic Soil Functions ............................................................................ 17
1.4.1 Natural in Situ Role ............................................................... 19
1.4.2 In Situ Role with Human Intervention ............................... 20
1.4.3 Soil as a Resource Material ................................................... 21
1.5 Concluding Remarks ..........................................................................22
1.5.1 Soil Functionality ...................................................................22
References ....................................................................................................... 24
 2. Nature of Soils...............................................................................................25