Environmetal Soil Properties and Behaviour

Environmetal Soil Properties and Behaviour


DisciplinaControle e Remediação da Poluição dos Solos5 materiais18 seguidores
Pré-visualização50 páginas
109
3.4.2.4 Vapour Pressure Technique ................................ 111
3.4.2.5 Thermocouple Psychrometer Measurements ......111
3.4.3 Hysteresis of Soil\u2013Water Potential Relationships ............ 113
3.5 Water Uptake and Transfer .............................................................. 114
3.5.1 Moisture Transfer ................................................................ 115
3.5.1.1 Water Transfer and Wetting Front ..................... 116
3.5.1.2 Vapour Transfer .................................................... 121
3.6 Chemical Reactions in Porewater ................................................... 123
3.6.1 Acids, Bases, and pH ........................................................... 124
3.6.2 Acid-Base Reactions, Hydrolysis ....................................... 126
3.6.3 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions .......................... 126
3.7 Physical Reactions and Hydration .................................................. 127
3.7.1 Hydrated Cations and Clay Minerals\u2014From 
EXAFS Analyses .................................................................. 128
3.8 Concluding Remarks ........................................................................ 129
References ..................................................................................................... 131
 4. Swelling Clays............................................................................................. 133
4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 133
4.2 Swelling Phenomena ........................................................................ 134
4.2.1 Pertinent Soil Characteristics ............................................. 134
4.2.2 Mechanisms of Swelling ..................................................... 136
4.2.2.1 Scoping Calculations for Swelling Pressures .......139
4.2.3 Swelling\u2014Effect of Salt Concentration and 
Porewater Composition ....................................................... 141
4.2.3.1 Higher Valences and Mixtures of Cations ........ 141
4.2.3.2 Influence of Exchangeable Cations .................... 142
4.2.4 Compositional Effects ......................................................... 143
4.2.4.1 Surface Charge and Attractive Forces ............... 143
4.2.4.2 Mineralogical Effect ............................................. 145
4.3 Water Uptake and Swelling ............................................................. 146
4.3.1 Nature of Interlayer Water\u2014From Molecular 
Dynamics Simulation .......................................................... 147
4.3.1.1 Interlayer Water .................................................... 149
4.4 Water Movement ............................................................................... 150
4.4.1 Wetting Front Advance ....................................................... 150
4.4.1.1 Analysis Using Material Coordinate System .......152
4.4.1.2 Soil Particle Diffusivity Analysis ....................... 153
4.4.2 Water and Solid Content Profiles in Confined 
Swelling Clays ...................................................................... 154
ixContents
4.5 Concluding Remarks ........................................................................ 156
4.5.1 Swelling and Water Movement .......................................... 156
4.5.2 Laboratory Measurement of Swelling .............................. 157
References ..................................................................................................... 160
 5. Stressors, Impacts, and Soil Functionality ............................................ 163
5.1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 163
5.2 Stressor Sources and Stressors ........................................................ 164
5.2.1 Soil Environment ................................................................. 164
5.2.2 Types of Stressor Sources and Stressors ........................... 165
5.2.3 Natural Stressor Sources and Stressors ............................ 166
5.2.4 Anthropogenic Stressor Sources and Stressors ............... 168
5.2.4.1 Industry Sources of Stressors ............................. 169
5.2.4.2 Constructed Facility\u2014Geologic 
Containment of HLW .......................................... 170
5.3 Stressor Impacts ................................................................................ 172
5.3.1 Impacts on Soil Environment ............................................. 172
5.3.2 Impacts on Soil Mass ........................................................... 174
5.3.2.1 Hydraulic ............................................................... 175
5.3.2.2 Mechanical ............................................................ 175
5.3.2.3 Thermal.................................................................. 176
5.3.2.4 Chemical ................................................................ 176
5.4 Soil Functionality Index (SFI) .......................................................... 177
5.4.1 Soil Functionality Indicators .............................................. 178
5.4.1.1 Selection of Indicators.......................................... 180
5.4.2 Indicators and Soil Functionality Index ........................... 181
5.4.3 Application of SFI\u2014An Example ....................................... 183
5.5 Time-Related Change of Functionality .......................................... 186
5.5.1 Time-Related Functionality ................................................ 186
5.5.1.1 Time-Related Changes of Soil Attributes ......... 187
5.5.2 Time-Related Changes of Long-Term Functionality ....... 189
5.5.2.1 Influence of Anthropogenic Stressors ............... 189
5.5.2.2 Influence of Natural Stressors ............................ 190
5.6 Concluding Remarks ........................................................................ 191
References ..................................................................................................... 192
 6. Mechanical Properties ............................................................................... 193
6.1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 193
6.2 Mechanical Attributes ...................................................................... 194
6.2.1 Soil Deformation under Load ............................................ 195
6.2.1.1 Yield and Failure in Soils .................................... 195
6.2.2 Plastic Potential .................................................................... 197
6.2.3 Flow Function ....................................................................... 198
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6.3 Concept of Effective Stress...............................................................200
6.3.1 Physical Concept ..................................................................200
6.3.2 Physical Concept in Relation to Clays............................... 201
6.3.2.1 Clays with Adsorbed Water Layers ................... 201
6.3.2.2 High-Swelling Clays ............................................ 203
6.4 Shear Strength of Soils ..................................................................... 204
6.4.1 Laboratory Determinations ................................................ 204
6.4.1.1 Triaxial Test System ............................................. 205
6.4.1.2 Other Strength Test Systems ............................... 205
6.4.2 Yield and Failure Theories ................................................. 207
6.4.2.1 Principal Stress Space .......................................... 207
6.4.2.2 Yield Criteria ......................................................... 209
6.4.3 Mohr\u2013Coulomb Theory ...................................................... 211
6.4.4 Yield/Failure Models ..........................................................