Environmetal Soil Properties and Behaviour

Environmetal Soil Properties and Behaviour


DisciplinaControle e Remediação da Poluição dos Solos5 materiais18 seguidores
Pré-visualização50 páginas
to rely on a determinis-
tic analysis of the combined unsaturated flow phenomenon. Because 
bacteria in the soil utilize oxidation-reduction reactions as a means to 
extract the energy required for growth, they essentially function as 
catalysts for reactions involving molecular oxygen and soil organic 
20 40 60 80 100
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
Matric Suction, kPa
Vo
lu
m
et
ric
 W
at
er
 C
on
te
nt
 \u3b8
, P
er
ce
nt
Pressure, initially saturated
Suction, initially saturated
Suction, initially unsaturated
Pressure, initially unsaturated
FIguRE 3.25
Soil\u2013water characteristic curves for a fine silt\u2014showing differences in characteristic values 
depending on whether the samples are initially saturated or initially unsaturated, and also 
dependent on whether the Haines-type (suction) method or the pressure method is used. 
131Soil\u2013Water Systems
matter and organic chemicals. Electron transfer in a redox reaction 
is generally accompanied by proton transfer. Microorganisms play 
a significant role in catalyzing redox reactions. Their utilization of 
redox reactions as a means of extraction of the energy required for 
growth serves as a catalyst for reactions involving molecular oxygen 
and organic matter (and organic chemicals) in the clays.
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133
4
Swelling Clays
4.1 Introduction
Clays generally undergo changes in volume with corresponding changes in 
their water contents. When they are dried, shrinkage and cracking occur, 
and if they are rewetted after drying, swelling occurs. The amount of swell-
ing after rewetting in the presence of available free water depends primarily 
on the type of clay minerals in the clay. Clays containing montmorillonite 
show an almost reversible swelling and shrinking on rewetting and redry-
ing, whereas clays containing kaolinite or illite show an initial large volume 
decrease on drying with only limited swelling on rewetting. Table 4.1 shows 
the average particle size and swelling capability of these minerals. The for-
mer (high volume change) clays are often referred to as high swelling clays 
and the latter (limited swelling on rewetting) are generally identified as low